Abstract

Micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) are now receiving prominence as a technology for the active matrix display applications. The semi-transparent metal cathode plays the crucial role in realizing TEOLEDs structure. Here, we report the optimization results on Mg:Ag ratio as the semitransparent cathode deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation. The optimized Mg:Ag cathode with 1:10 ratio (wt %) shows a sheet resistance value as low as 5.2 Ω/□, an average transmittance of 49.7%, reflectance of 41.4%, and absorbance of 8.9% over the visible spectral region (400~700 nm). The fabricated red TEOLEDs device implemented using LiF (1nm)/Mg:Ag (1:10) cathode shows the voltage value of 4.17 V at a current density of 10.00 mA/cm2, and current efficiencies variation from 55.3 to 50.1 cd/A over the brightness range 2,000 – 12,000 cd/m2. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum displays the light emission at 608 nm wavelength with a half width of 29.5 nm. The narrow half-width of red light emission is attributed to the micro-cavity effects due to the semitransparent cathode.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan
Opt. Express 13(3) 937-941 (2005)

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2017 (2)

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (2)

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. H. Son, M. J. Park, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “High efficiency top-emission organic light emitting diodes with second and third-order microcavity structure,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3131–R3137 (2016).

2015 (3)

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

2014 (3)

D. Y. Yang, S. M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO 3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 2468–2475 (2014).

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “Optical effect of surface morphology of Ag on multilayer electrode applications for OLEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 238–240 (2014).

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

2013 (2)

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

2012 (1)

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

2011 (4)

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Z. Wu, Y. Zhai, R. X. Guo, and J. Wang, “Red top-emitting organic light-emitting device with improved efficiency and saturated color,” J. Lumin. 131, 2042–2045 (2011).

B. Tian, G. Williams, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 cathode,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 104507 (2011).

2010 (1)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

2008 (1)

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013301 (2008).

2007 (1)

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6975–6977 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, “Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006).

H. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012103 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 01, 248–266 (2005).

2004 (4)

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, “Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with highly saturated color,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663–666 (2004).

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, “Transient electrophosphorescence in red top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4771 (2004).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca–Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614 (2004).

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

2003 (3)

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

2002 (2)

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

2001 (2)

Y. Zhao, S. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Hou, “Effect of LiF buffer layer on the performance of organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 397, 208–210 (2001).

F. R. Zhu, B. L. Low, K. R. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Lithium–fluoride-modified indium tin oxide anode for enhanced carrier injection in phenyl-substituted polymer electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1205 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. Gu and S. R. Forrest, “Design of flat-panel displays based on organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 83–99 (1998).

1997 (1)

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, “Enhanced electron injection in organic electroluminescence devices using an Al/LiF electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).

Aziz, H.

B. Tian, G. Williams, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 cathode,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 104507 (2011).

Ban, D.

B. Tian, G. Williams, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 cathode,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 104507 (2011).

Bao, Q.

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

Baumann, I.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

Burrows, P. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

Cai, X.

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

Chan, M. Y.

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Chan, P. K. L.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Chen, C. H.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, “Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with highly saturated color,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663–666 (2004).

Chen, C. W.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 01, 248–266 (2005).

Chen, J.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Y. Yang, S. M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO 3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 2468–2475 (2014).

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “Optical effect of surface morphology of Ag on multilayer electrode applications for OLEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 238–240 (2014).

Chua, S. J.

F. R. Zhu, B. L. Low, K. R. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Lithium–fluoride-modified indium tin oxide anode for enhanced carrier injection in phenyl-substituted polymer electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1205 (2001).

Denk, P.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

Ding, X. M.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Fahlman, M.

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

Feng, X.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Feng, X. D.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Flugge, H.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Forrest, S. R.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

G. Gu and S. R. Forrest, “Design of flat-panel displays based on organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 83–99 (1998).

Fung, M. K.

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

Gao, P.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

Grozea, D.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Gu, G.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

G. Gu and S. R. Forrest, “Design of flat-panel displays based on organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 83–99 (1998).

Guo, R. X.

Z. Wu, Y. Zhai, R. X. Guo, and J. Wang, “Red top-emitting organic light-emitting device with improved efficiency and saturated color,” J. Lumin. 131, 2042–2045 (2011).

Hamwi, S.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Han, J. H.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

Han, J. I.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, “Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca–Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614 (2004).

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, “Transient electrophosphorescence in red top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4771 (2004).

Han, Y. C.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “Optical effect of surface morphology of Ag on multilayer electrode applications for OLEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 238–240 (2014).

Hinze, P.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

Hong, S.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hou, J. Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Hou, “Effect of LiF buffer layer on the performance of organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 397, 208–210 (2001).

Hou, X. Y.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Hsu, S. F.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, “Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with highly saturated color,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663–666 (2004).

Hu, A. T.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, “Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with highly saturated color,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663–666 (2004).

Huang, F.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

Huang, W.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Huang, Z.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, “Enhanced electron injection in organic electroluminescence devices using an Al/LiF electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).

Jabbour, G. E.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

Jang, W. J.

D. Y. Yang, S. M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO 3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 2468–2475 (2014).

Jeon, S. O.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013301 (2008).

Jeon, W. S.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Jeong, E. G.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ji, Y.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

Jiang, N.

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

Johannes, H. H.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Johnson, D.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Joo, C. W.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013301 (2008).

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

Kim, D.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kim, G.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kim, G. H.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012103 (2006).

Kim, I.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

Ko, S. H.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Kwon, J.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kwon, J. H.

Y. H. Son, M. J. Park, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “High efficiency top-emission organic light emitting diodes with second and third-order microcavity structure,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3131–R3137 (2016).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012103 (2006).

Lai, S. L.

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Lampande, R.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Lau, K. C.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6975–6977 (2007).

Lee, C. C.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, “Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with highly saturated color,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663–666 (2004).

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, “Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006).

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, “Transient electrophosphorescence in red top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4771 (2004).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca–Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614 (2004).

Lee, C. S.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6975–6977 (2007).

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Lee, H.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013301 (2008).

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

H. K. Kim, K. S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012103 (2006).

Lee, M. K.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, P.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

D. Y. Yang, S. M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO 3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 2468–2475 (2014).

Lee, S. T.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6975–6977 (2007).

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Lee, T. W.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, Y. K.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

Li, Y.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lim, J. W.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

Lim, M. S.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “Optical effect of surface morphology of Ag on multilayer electrode applications for OLEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 238–240 (2014).

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 01, 248–266 (2005).

Lin, X.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liu, R.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liu, S. Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Hou, “Effect of LiF buffer layer on the performance of organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 397, 208–210 (2001).

Liu, X.

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

Liu, X. J.

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

Low, B. L.

F. R. Zhu, B. L. Low, K. R. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Lithium–fluoride-modified indium tin oxide anode for enhanced carrier injection in phenyl-substituted polymer electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1205 (2001).

Lu, Z. H.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Lussem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

Ma, Y.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Mao, H. F.

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, “Enhanced electron injection in organic electroluminescence devices using an Al/LiF electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).

Mi, B.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Moon, D. G.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, “Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006).

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, “Transient electrophosphorescence in red top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4771 (2004).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca–Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614 (2004).

Nikolayzik, F.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Oh, H. Y.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Park, J. H.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “Optical effect of surface morphology of Ag on multilayer electrode applications for OLEDs,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 238–240 (2014).

Park, J. S.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Park, J. W.

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

Park, M. J.

Y. H. Son, M. J. Park, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “High efficiency top-emission organic light emitting diodes with second and third-order microcavity structure,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3131–R3137 (2016).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Pei, K.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Peng, B.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Pode, R.

Y. H. Son, M. J. Park, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “High efficiency top-emission organic light emitting diodes with second and third-order microcavity structure,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3131–R3137 (2016).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Pode, R. B.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, J. I. Han, and D. G. Moon, “Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006).

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, “Transient electrophosphorescence in red top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4771 (2004).

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca–Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4614 (2004).

Qiao, J. S.

X. J. Liu, X. Cai, J. S. Qiao, H. F. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).

Rabe, T.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Ran, F.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

Ren, X.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Rieb, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

Riedl, T.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

Ruhstaller, B.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieb, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 466 (2003).

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

Schmale, S.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Schmidt, H.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Shaheen, S. E.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

Shen, W.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

Shi, S.

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

Son, Y. H.

Y. H. Son, M. J. Park, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “High efficiency top-emission organic light emitting diodes with second and third-order microcavity structure,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5(1), R3131–R3137 (2016).

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Song, W. J.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Suh, M. C.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, S. Shi, Q. Bao, X. Liu, and M. Fahlman, “Role of thick-lithium fluoride layer in energy level alignment at organic/metal interface: unifying effect on high metallic work functions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2, 1400527 (2015).

Tang, C. W.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, “Enhanced electron injection in organic electroluminescence devices using an Al/LiF electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).

Tian, B.

B. Tian, G. Williams, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 cathode,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 104507 (2011).

Tong, S. W.

M. Y. Chan, S. L. Lai, M. K. Fung, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Efficient CsF/Yb/Ag cathodes for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1784 (2003).

Turak, A.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Vicenzi, E. P.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

Wang, D.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Wu, Y. Zhai, R. X. Guo, and J. Wang, “Red top-emitting organic light-emitting device with improved efficiency and saturated color,” J. Lumin. 131, 2042–2045 (2011).

Wang, X. J.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Wang, X. Z.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Wang, Z.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Wang, Z. J.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Weimann, T.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Williams, G.

B. Tian, G. Williams, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices using a MoO3/Ag/MoO3 cathode,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 104507 (2011).

Winder, C.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, “Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288 (2002).

Winkler, T.

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4669–4673 (2012).

T. Winkler, H. Schmidt, H. Flugge, F. Nikolayzik, I. Baumann, S. Schmale, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, H. H. Johannes, T. Rabe, S. Hamwi, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Efficient large area semitransparent organic solar cells based on highly transparent and conductive ZTO/Ag/ZTO multilayer top electrodes,” Org. Electron. 12, 1612–1618 (2011).

Woo Bae, H.

M. J. Park, Y. H. Son, G. H. Kim, R. Lampande, H. Woo Bae, R. Pode, Y. K. Lee, W. J. Song, and J. H. Kwon, “Device performances of third order micro-cavity green top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 26, 458–463 (2015).

Wood, R.

D. Grozea, A. Turak, X. D. Feng, Z. H. Lu, D. Johnson, and R. Wood, “Chemical structure of Al/LiF/Alq interfaces in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3173 (2002).

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 01, 248–266 (2005).

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, Y. Zhai, R. X. Guo, and J. Wang, “Red top-emitting organic light-emitting device with improved efficiency and saturated color,” J. Lumin. 131, 2042–2045 (2011).

Xie, W. F.

W. F. Xie, K. C. Lau, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6975–6977 (2007).

Xu, H.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

Yang, C. J.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Disp. Technol. 01, 248–266 (2005).

Yang, D. Y.

D. Y. Yang, S. M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO 3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 2468–2475 (2014).

Yang, J. H.

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yang, Z.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ye, J.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yeo, J.

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yeon, C. B.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

Yook, K. S.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013301 (2008).

Yun, S. J.

K. S. Lee, I. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Lim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin Metal Electrodes for Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics,” ETRI J. 35, 587–593 (2013).

Zhai, Y.

Z. Wu, Y. Zhai, R. X. Guo, and J. Wang, “Red top-emitting organic light-emitting device with improved efficiency and saturated color,” J. Lumin. 131, 2042–2045 (2011).

Zhan, Y. Q.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Zhang, H.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Ji, F. Ran, H. Xu, W. Shen, and J. Zhang, “Improved performance and low cost OLED microdisplay with titanium nitride anode,” Org. Electron. 15, 3137–3143 (2014).

Zhang, K. R.

F. R. Zhu, B. L. Low, K. R. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Lithium–fluoride-modified indium tin oxide anode for enhanced carrier injection in phenyl-substituted polymer electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1205 (2001).

Zhang, S. T.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Zhang, Z.

K. Pei, Z. Wang, X. Ren, Z. Zhang, B. Peng, and P. K. L. Chan, “Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 033302 (2015).

Zhao, J. M.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Hou, “Effect of LiF buffer layer on the performance of organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 397, 208–210 (2001).

Zhong, G. Y.

J. M. Zhao, S. T. Zhang, X. J. Wang, Y. Q. Zhan, X. Z. Wang, G. Y. Zhong, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. Huang, and X. Y. Hou, “Dual role of LiF as a hole-injection buffer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2913 (2004).

Zhou, T. X.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, S. R. Forrest, E. P. Vicenzi, and T. X. Zhou, “Semitransparent cathodes for organic light emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3080 (2000).

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhu, F. R.

F. R. Zhu, B. L. Low, K. R. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Lithium–fluoride-modified indium tin oxide anode for enhanced carrier injection in phenyl-substituted polymer electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1205 (2001).

Zhu, J.

X. Yang, P. Gao, Z. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Huang, and J. Ye, “Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44576 (2017).
[PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

W. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Li, D. Wang, J. Chen, X. Feng, Z. Huang, R. Liu, X. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Mi, and Y. Ma, “Copper mesh templated by breath-figure polymer films as flexible transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(17), 11122–11127 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. H. Han, D. H. Kim, E. G. Jeong, T. W. Lee, M. K. Lee, J. W. Park, H. Lee, and K. C. Choi, “Highly conductive transparent and flexible electrodes including double-stacked thin metal films for transparent flexible electronics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16343–16350 (2017).
[PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Hong, J. Yeo, G. Kim, D. Kim, H. Lee, J. Kwon, H. Lee, P. Lee, and S. H. Ko, “Nonvacuum, maskless fabrication of a flexible metal grid transparent conductor by low-temperature selective laser sintering of nanoparticle ink,” ACS Nano 7(6), 5024–5031 (2013).
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. Interfaces (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Transmittance, (b) reflectance, (c) absorption and (d) sheet resistance characteristics of Mg:Ag cathodes with different compositions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TEM / EDS results of various Mg:Ag ratio cathodes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Current density versus applied voltage of EODs with various cathode structures of Mg:Ag (10:1), Mg:Ag (1:10) and LiF(1 nm)/ Mg:Ag (1:10).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Energy level diagram and molecular structure of the used material for the fabricated red TEOLEDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Current density versus voltage characteristic, (b) current efficiency and (c) electroluminescence spectra of the fabricated phosphorescent red TEOLEDs.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters of Mg:Ag cathodes with different compositions

Tables Icon

Table 2 OLED device characteristics of various Mg:Ag ratio

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