Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new scheme for a reciprocal optical diode integrated in a multimode silicon waveguide. The compact 4μm long functional region consists of a tapered coupler, a narrow single-mode waveguide, and a half-elliptical silver surface plasmonic splitter with refractive index modification of silicon. This spatial asymmetric design achieves even-to-odd mode conversion in the forward direction and blocks propagation of the even mode in the backward direction. The maximum contrast ratio and forward transmission efficiency reach approximately 0.99 and 87% while the values respectively keep higher than 0.96 and 80% within a 100nm operational bandwidth in a two-dimensional design. Both freestanding and SOI-based three-dimensional devices are simulated and at least a 0.94 contrast ratio is observed. Moreover, the robustness is demonstrated by introducing deviations to the surface plasmonic splitter. The proposed scheme brings together advantages including a high contrast ratio (>0.94), a large operational bandwidth (100nm) and a small footprint (4μm long).

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

H. H. Hulkkonen, T. Salminen, and T. Niemi, “Block Copolymer Patterning for Creating Porous Silicon Thin Films with Tunable Refractive Indices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 1021 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (7)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng and Y. Wang, “Unidirectional reciprocal wavelength filters based on the square-lattice photonic crystal structures with the rectangular defects,” Opt. Express 21(1), 220–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (4)

C. Wang, C. Z. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “On-chip optical diode based on silicon photonic crystal heterojunctions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26948–26955 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmon-induced transparency with detuned ultracompact Fabry-Perot resonators in integrated plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3251–3257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, “Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Aydin, K.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahlmann, N.

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyraz, O.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Butun, S.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callewaert, F.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. H.

H. Ye, J. Q. N. Zhang, Z. Y. Yu, D. L. Wang, and Z. H. Chen, “Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cicek, A.

Claps, R.

Dimitropoulos, D.

Ding, Y.

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dötsch, H.

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elesin, Y.

El-Zaiat, E. S. Y.

E. S. Y. El-Zaiat and G. M. Youssef, “Dispersive parameters for complex refractive index of p- and n-type silicon from spectrophotometric measurements in spectral range 200-2500 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 106–112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R. L.

Fan, L.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Fan, S. H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fard, A. P.

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Frandsen, L. H.

Frellsen, L. F.

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerhardt, R.

Gong, Q. H.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haddadpour, A.

Haldane, F. D. M.

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, “Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

Han, Z.

Hertel, P.

Hou, B.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J. J.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. Y.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hulkkonen, H. H.

H. H. Hulkkonen, T. Salminen, and T. Niemi, “Block Copolymer Patterning for Creating Porous Silicon Thin Films with Tunable Refractive Indices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 1021 (2017).
[PubMed]

Izuhara, T.

Jalali, B.

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Soljačić, C. Luo, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. Fan, “Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 637–639 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaya, O. A.

Khavasi, A.

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

Kurt, H.

Lai, Y.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, S.

Lee, B.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. Y.

Li, J.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Q.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Lin, X. S.

Liu, V.

Liu, Y.

Lu, C. C.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

Mehrany, K.

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

Miller, D. A. B.

Mitrovic, M.

Nezhad, V. F.

Niemi, T.

H. H. Hulkkonen, T. Salminen, and T. Niemi, “Block Copolymer Patterning for Creating Porous Silicon Thin Films with Tunable Refractive Indices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 1021 (2017).
[PubMed]

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okyay, A. K.

Oner, B. B.

Osgood, R. M.

Park, H.

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polson, R.

Popkov, A. F.

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raghu, S.

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, “Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, V.

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rezaei, M.

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salminen, T.

H. H. Hulkkonen, T. Salminen, and T. Niemi, “Block Copolymer Patterning for Creating Porous Silicon Thin Films with Tunable Refractive Indices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 1021 (2017).
[PubMed]

Shen, B.

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigmund, O.

Soljacic, M.

Tsai, M. C.

Turhan-Sayan, G.

Ulug, B.

Üstün, K.

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veronis, G.

V. F. Nezhad, A. Haddadpour, and G. Veronis, “Tunable spatial mode converters and optical diodes for graphene parallel plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23883–23897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, D.

Wang, D. L.

H. Ye, J. Q. N. Zhang, Z. Y. Yu, D. L. Wang, and Z. H. Chen, “Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkens, L.

Wu, W. Q.

Xu, X. A.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

Youssef, G. M.

E. S. Y. El-Zaiat and G. M. Youssef, “Dispersive parameters for complex refractive index of p- and n-type silicon from spectrophotometric measurements in spectral range 200-2500 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 106–112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Yu, Z. F.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z. Y.

H. Ye, J. Q. N. Zhang, Z. Y. Yu, D. L. Wang, and Z. H. Chen, “Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yucel, M. B.

Yvind, K.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, J. Q. N.

H. Ye, J. Q. N. Zhang, Z. Y. Yu, D. L. Wang, and Z. H. Chen, “Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. B.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, X. L.

C. Wang, X. L. Zhong, and Z. Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C. Z.

Zhou, H.

Zhou, K. F.

Zhuromskyy, O.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

H. H. Hulkkonen, T. Salminen, and T. Niemi, “Block Copolymer Patterning for Creating Porous Silicon Thin Films with Tunable Refractive Indices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 1021 (2017).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultralow power all-optical diode in photonic crystal heterostructures with broken spatial inversion symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

H. Ye, J. Q. N. Zhang, Z. Y. Yu, D. L. Wang, and Z. H. Chen, “Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094214 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Khavasi, M. Rezaei, A. P. Fard, and K. Mehrany, “A heuristic approach to the realization of the wide-band optical diode effect in photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Xu, C. Gu, B. Hou, Y. Lai, J. Li, and H. Chen, “Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Bi, J. J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. H. Fan, Z. F. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (15)

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Raman amplification and lasing in SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2459–2466 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Lin, W. Q. Wu, H. Zhou, K. F. Zhou, and S. Lan, “Enhancement of unidirectional transmission through the coupling of nonlinear photonic crystal defects,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2429–2439 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmon-induced transparency with detuned ultracompact Fabry-Perot resonators in integrated plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3251–3257 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, C. Z. Zhou, and Z. Y. Li, “On-chip optical diode based on silicon photonic crystal heterojunctions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26948–26955 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “All linear optical devices are mode converters,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23985–23993 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liu, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Ultra-compact photonic crystal waveguide spatial mode converter and its connection to the optical diode effect,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28388–28397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng and Y. Wang, “Unidirectional reciprocal wavelength filters based on the square-lattice photonic crystal structures with the rectangular defects,” Opt. Express 21(1), 220–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, Y. Elesin, L. F. Frellsen, M. Mitrovic, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and K. Yvind, “Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8525–8532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Oner, K. Üstün, H. Kurt, A. K. Okyay, and G. Turhan-Sayan, “Large bandwidth mode order converter by differential waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3186–3195 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Y. Lee, H. Park, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Reflectionless compact plasmonic waveguide mode converter by using a mode-selective cavity,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9004–9013 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ye, D. Wang, Z. Yu, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Ultra-compact broadband mode converter and optical diode based on linear rod-type photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9673–9680 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10847–10855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Broadband asymmetric light transmission via all-dielectric digital metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20961–20970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. F. Nezhad, A. Haddadpour, and G. Veronis, “Tunable spatial mode converters and optical diodes for graphene parallel plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23883–23897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ye, Z. Yu, Y. Liu, and Z. Chen, “Realization of compact broadband optical diode in linear air-hole photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24592–24599 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

E. S. Y. El-Zaiat and G. M. Youssef, “Dispersive parameters for complex refractive index of p- and n-type silicon from spectrophotometric measurements in spectral range 200-2500 nm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 65, 106–112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, “Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

C. Wang, X. L. Zhong, and Z. Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Callewaert, S. Butun, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Inverse design of an ultra-compact broadband optical diode based on asymmetric spatial mode conversion,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Schaffler, Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials:GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe (John Wiley & Sons, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic configuration of the proposed reciprocal optical diode. (b) Transmission efficiencies of even and odd mode in standard silicon waveguide and pure silicon structure. (c) Magnetic field Hz at wavelength 1550nm. The parameters adopted in 2D FEM simulation are set n = 12 , W1 = 630nm and W2 = 300nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated magnetic field Hz and power flux (x-direction) at center wavelength 1550nm in forward and backward direction when Δn = + 0.3(left column) and Δn = −0.3(right column). The structural parameters are set W1 = 630nm, W2 = 300nm and W3 = 220nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission efficiencies of forward and backward propagation of even mode. (b) The corresponding contrast ratios of 2D design. (c) The distributions of forward output power flux from waveguide at wavelength 1550nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Contrast ratios of perfect and imperfect samples when (a) Δn>0 and (b) Δn<0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Forward and backward transmission efficiencies and corresponding contrast ratios for 3D models when (a),(b) Δn = + 0.3 and (c),(d) Δn = −0.3 respectively. The structural parameters are set W1 = 650nm, W2 = 300nm and W3 = 260nm. The refractive indices of silicon are set n e q u = 3.19 and nSi = 12 in 2D simulation and 3D simulation respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Contrast ratios of perfect and imperfect 3D SOI-based samples. (b) Contrast ratios of 3D SOI-based model with terraced ellipse.

Equations (1)

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ε m ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω γ ,

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