Abstract

In this study, we have fabricated a blue-green color-tunable monolithic InGaN/GaN LED having a multi-junction structure with three terminals. The device has an n-p-n structure consisting of a green and a blue active region, i.e., an n-GaN / blue-MQW / p-GaN / green-MQW / n-GaN / Al2O3 structure with three terminals for independently controlling the two active regions. To realize this LED structure, a typical LED consisting of layers of n-GaN, blue MQW, and p-GaN is regrown on a conventional green LED by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. We explain detailed mechanisms of three operation modes which are the green, blue, and cyan mode. Moreover, we discuss optical properties of the device.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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  12. J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D.-J. Kong, S.-Y. Bae, C.-M. Kang, and D.-S. Lee, “InGaN/GaN microcolumn light-emitting diode arrays with sidewall metal contact,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22320–22326 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Fred Schubert, Light-Emitting Diode (Cambridge University, 2006), Chap. 4, and Chap. 8.

2014 (3)

C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D.-J. Kong, S.-Y. Bae, C.-M. Kang, and D.-S. Lee, “InGaN/GaN microcolumn light-emitting diode arrays with sidewall metal contact,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22320–22326 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Arthur, S.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.-Y.

Baek, J. H.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X. A.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chun, J.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cogman, A.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Downey, E.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ebong, A.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flhhe, S.

C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hommel, D.

C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeong, T.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. X.

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, C.-M.

Kang, J.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, W.-M.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, A. E.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-J.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

Kim, M.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, D.-J.

LeBoeuf, S.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.-S.

Lee, H. J.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leem, Y. C.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Merfeld, D. W.

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

Seong, H.-K.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tchoe, Y.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tessarek, C.

C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, G.-C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, X.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, G.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, A.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. Chun, K. J. Lee, Y. C. Leem, W.-M. Kang, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. J. Lee, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Vertically stacked color tunable light-emitting diodes fabricated using wafer bonding and transfer printing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(22), 19482–19487 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-color light-emitting diodes using GaN microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-Free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-Nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled color-tunable smart display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (3)

C. Tessarek, S. Flhhe, and D. Hommel, “Colour and multicolour tuning of InGaN quantum dot based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride micro-emitter arrays: Development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “Tapered sidewall dry etching process for GaN and its applications in device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(1), 99–102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

A. Ebong, S. Arthur, E. Downey, X. A. Cao, S. LeBoeuf, and D. W. Merfeld, “Device and circuit modeling of GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for optimum current spreading,” Solid-State Electron. 47(10), 1817–1823 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Fred Schubert, Light-Emitting Diode (Cambridge University, 2006), Chap. 4, and Chap. 8.

J. C. Kim, S. Ti, and D. E. Mars, “Nanostructure optoelectronic device having sidewall electrical contact,” U.S. Patent 20110297913A1, 8 Dec. 2011.

D.-J. Kong, C.-M. Kang, and D.-S. Lee, “Light emitting diode having multi-junction structure and method of fabricating the same,” U.S. Patent 2014340940A1, 25 JULY. 2014.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (9897 KB)      The video demonstration of each of the operating modes

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of a multi-junction InGaN/GaN LED fabrication. (b) SEM image of the final device. (c) Cross-sectional SEM image of the final device. (d) SEM bird’s eye view of the device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Images of the color controlled device. (a) Color changing shown on a CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram from blue (460nm) to green (520nm) with first and last points from independently operated blue and green emissions. (b) Representative EL spectra in a blue, cyan, and green mode at 20mA current injections. (see Visualization 1)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The operating circuit for fully independent color emissions in the multi-junction LED.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EL spectra and an equivalent circuit models for the multi-junction LED for (a) blue and (b) green.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The EL spectra and the corresponding equivalent circuit model for the multi-junction LED for cyan mode operation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The current injection and peak ratio in cyan mode from Fig. 5(a) with mixing blue (460nm) and green (520nm) at 4mA to 20mA.

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