Abstract

We generate broad bandwidth visible light ranging from 498 to 611 nm via third-harmonic generation in a silica toroid microcavity. The silica toroid microcavity is fed with a continuous-wave input at a telecom wavelength, where third-harmonic generation follows the generation of an infrared Kerr comb via cascaded four-wave-mixing and stimulated Raman scattering effects. Thanks to these cascaded effects (four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and third-harmonic generation) in an ultrahigh-Q microcavity, a broad bandwidth visible light is obtained. The visible light couples with the whispering gallery mode of the cavity by demonstrating the evanescent coupling of the generated visible light with a tapered fiber based on an add-drop configuration.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (7)

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of a coherent near-infrared Kerr frequency comb in a monolithic microresonator with normal GVD,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2920–2923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miller, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26517–26525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jung, R. Stoll, X. Guo, D. Fischer, and H. X. Tang, “Green, red, and IR frequency comb line generation from single IR pump in AlN microring resonator,” Optica 1(6), 396–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Akamatsu, M. Yasuda, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, T. Tanabe, A. Onae, and F. L. Hong, “Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7898–7905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38(1), 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Normal group-velocity dispersion Kerr frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 43–45 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Abdolvand, A. M. Walser, M. Ziemienczuk, T. Nguyen, and P. St. J. Russell, “Generation of a phase-locked Raman frequency comb in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4362–4364 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. T. Simons and I. Novikova, “Observation of second-order hyper-Raman generation in LiNbO3 whispering-gallery mode disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3027–3029 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749–3771 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1-6), 287–292 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Yoshikawa and T. Imasaka, “A new approach for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 94–98 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

Akamatsu, D.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakireva, I. V.

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barucci, A.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, E.

Berneschi, S.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burkhart, J.

Campillo, A. J.

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1-6), 287–292 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

T. Kato, T. Kobatake, Z. Chen, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Influence of Raman scattering on Kerr frequency comb in a silica toroidal microcavity,” in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference (FiO/LS) (2015), paper FTu2E.4.

Chen-Jinnai, A.

Coddington, I.

Coen, S.

Coillet, A.

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cromer, C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749–3771 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliyahu, D.

Erkintalo, M.

Fan, L.

Farnesi, D.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

Foster, M. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gavartin, E.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giorgetta, F. R.

Godey, C.

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Hall, J. L.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749–3771 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herr, T.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

Hosaka, K.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Imasaka, T.

S. Yoshikawa and T. Imasaka, “A new approach for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 94–98 (1993).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Kato, T.

T. Kato, T. Kobatake, Z. Chen, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Influence of Raman scattering on Kerr frequency comb in a silica toroidal microcavity,” in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference (FiO/LS) (2015), paper FTu2E.4.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobatake, T.

T. Kato, T. Kobatake, Z. Chen, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Influence of Raman scattering on Kerr frequency comb in a silica toroidal microcavity,” in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference (FiO/LS) (2015), paper FTu2E.4.

Kofler, J.

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leaird, D. E.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

Lin, H. B.

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1-6), 287–292 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, Y.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luke, K.

Maleki, L.

Manolatou, C.

Matsko, A. B.

McMillan, J. F.

Miller, S.

Min, B.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Nguyen, T.

Novikova, I.

Nunzi Conti, G.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Onae, A.

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petron, G.

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randle, H. G.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieker, G. B.

Righini, G. C.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

Seidel, D.

Sharping, J. E.

Simons, M. T.

Sinclair, L. C.

Soria, S.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stoll, R.

Suzuki, R.

T. Kato, T. Kobatake, Z. Chen, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Influence of Raman scattering on Kerr frequency comb in a silica toroidal microcavity,” in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference (FiO/LS) (2015), paper FTu2E.4.

Swann, W. C.

Sweeney, C.

Sylvestre, T.

Tanabe, T.

Tang, H. X.

Tans, P. P.

Tetsumoto, T.

Turner, A. C.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, L. T.

Walser, A. M.

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P. H.

Wang, P.-H.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

Xie, Z.

Xuan, Y.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, X.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Wang, Y. Xuan, L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Xue, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22441–22452 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K. Y.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749–3771 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, S.

S. Yoshikawa and T. Imasaka, “A new approach for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 94–98 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yoshiki, W.

Ziemienczuk, M.

Zolot, A. M.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Theoretical and experimental study of stimulated and cascaded Raman scattering in ultrahigh-Q optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1219–1228 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Yoshikawa and T. Imasaka, “A new approach for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 94–98 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Microcavity enhanced Raman gain,” Opt. Commun. 133(1-6), 287–292 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optica (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, “Optical frequency conversion in silica-whispering-gallery-mode microspherical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749–3771 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Kato, T. Kobatake, Z. Chen, R. Suzuki, and T. Tanabe, “Influence of Raman scattering on Kerr frequency comb in a silica toroidal microcavity,” in Proceedings of Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference (FiO/LS) (2015), paper FTu2E.4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The cross-sectional mode profile of the silica toroid microcavity. The diameter of the microcavity is 70 μm and the minor diameter is 6.2 μm. It shows the TE01 mode. (b) and (c) show dispersions of the mode shown in (a) calculated using the finite element method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup. An add-drop configuration is used to collect visible light. A continuous-wave tunable laser diode (TLD) with a linewidth of 100 kHz (Santec TSL-710) is amplified to ~1 W with an erbium doped fiber optical amplifier (EDFA) (Pritel LNHP30) and is then evanescently coupled to the microcavity via a tapered fiber made from a single mode fiber at a telecom wavelength. An optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) is for the IR region (Yokogawa AQ6375) and is connected at the through port of the setup. A spectrometer (SPEC) is used for the visible region (Ocean Optics USB2000 + ) and is connected to the drop port for the first experiment and aligned to collect light with a telescope for subsequent experiments. The resolution of the SPEC for visible light is 430 GHz. (b) Kerr comb with 1-FSR (0.97 THz). The pump wavelength is 1547.5 nm and the pump power is 0.5 W. (c) Second-harmonic generation autocorrelation signal for (a). The pulse interval is 1 ps, which matches the 1-FSR spacing (0.97 THz).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The spectra of the pump and generated visible light. The visible light is collected through the drop port. The pump laser emits at 1538.6 nm and at 0.73 W. The TH is measured at 512.9 nm. The inset is a photograph taken from top of the sample during the measurement. (b) IR and visible spectra when the pump laser operates at 1560.9 nm and 1.14 W. The toroid microcavity used for this experiment has major and minor diameters of 80 and 5 μm, respectively. The longitudinal mode spacing of the Kerr comb is 1-FSR, which is a spacing of 690 GHz. The longitudinal modes are not resolved in the visible spectrum due to the limited wavelength resolution of the spectrometer. (c) IR and visible spectra when the pump laser operates at 1545.9 nm and 0.94 W. The same cavity is used as in (b). The longitudinal mode spacing of the Kerr comb is 5-FSR. The thick linewidth of each longitudinal mode is due to the limited wavelength resolution of the spectrometer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Generated IR comb and visible spectra for a silica toroid microcavity with a Q of 1.2 × 107. The major and minor diameters were 50 and 13 µm, respectively. (a) Spectra when we pump the cavity with 1542.2 nm at 0.5 W. A single Stokes signal at 1630 nm is obtained. (b) Measured spectra when the pump laser operates at 1542.56 nm at 0.5 W. High order SRS at an 11 FSR interval is observed at the IR wavelength. The generated visible light has a bandwidth of 50 THz with a frequency spacing of 11 FSR. The resolution of the spectrometer used to measure visible light is insufficient to resolve each FSR line, but each spectral component has a frequency spacing of 11 FSR. (c) Measured spectra when the pump laser operates at 1551.6 nm and 1 W. The bandwidth of the generated light is very large at 110 THz. Inset is a CCD camera picture taken from the top. It shows that the light also couples toward the counter-clockwise direction, which is due to the clockwise and counter clockwise coupling via scattering [36].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured input power dependence of light generated by the χ(3) process. In this experiment, we only generate one line in the visible region (512.9 nm), and the Kerr comb in the IR region disappears when the input power exceeds 0.73 W. The red solid line is a cubic function fitted to the data from 0.55 to 0.73 W, and the blue solid line is the data above 0.73 W. (b) (c) The Kerr comb spectra at each point shown in (a).

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