Abstract

Photonic metamaterials and metasurfaces are nanostructured optical materials engineered to enable properties that have not been found in nature. Optical characterization of these structures is a challenging task. We report a reliable technique that is particularly useful for characterization of phase properties introduced by small and spatially inhomogeneous samples of metamaterials and metasurfaces. The proposed structured light, or vortex based interferometric method is used to directly visualize phase changes introduced by subwavelength-thick nanostructures. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique, we designed and fabricated several metasurface samples consisting of metal nano-antennas introducing different phase shifts and experimentally measured phase shifts of the transmitted light. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with the designed properties of the antenna arrays. Due to the presence of the singularity in the vortex beam, one of the potential applications of the proposed approach based on structured light is step-by-step probing of small fractions of the micro-scale samples or images.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (5)

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metasurfaces for manipulating surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

K. O’Brien, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, H. Suchowski, B. Kante, Y. Park, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Reflective interferometry for optical metamaterial phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 4089–4091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, “Applied physics. Structured light meets structured matter,” Science 337(6098), 1054–1055 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2391–2393 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

K. Frischwasser, I. Yulevich, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Rashba-like spin degeneracy breaking in coupled thermal antenna lattices,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23475–23482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical Negative-index Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Spiral interferogram analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(6), 1400–1409 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Fadeeva, A. V. Volyar, and A. N. Alekseev, “Recognition of the interference spiral image in a fiber optical sensor employing optical vortices,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 30(8), 622–625 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alekseev, A. N.

T. A. Fadeeva, A. V. Volyar, and A. N. Alekseev, “Recognition of the interference spiral image in a fiber optical sensor employing optical vortices,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 30(8), 622–625 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aoust, G.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

Baena, J. D.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnakov, Y.

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernet, S.

Beruete, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

Bonache, J.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campione, S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chong, K. E.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahan, N.

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominguez, J.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fadeeva, T. A.

T. A. Fadeeva, A. V. Volyar, and A. N. Alekseev, “Recognition of the interference spiral image in a fiber optical sensor employing optical vortices,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 30(8), 622–625 (2004).
[Crossref]

Falcone, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frischwasser, K.

K. Frischwasser, I. Yulevich, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Rashba-like spin degeneracy breaking in coupled thermal antenna lattices,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23475–23482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fürhapter, S.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez, V.

Gorodetski, Y.

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Güney, D. Ö.

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frischwasser, I. Yulevich, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Rashba-like spin degeneracy breaking in coupled thermal antenna lattices,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23475–23482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1875–1877 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, A.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jankowska, E.

Jesacher, A.

Kante, B.

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kee, S. T.

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frischwasser, I. Yulevich, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Rashba-like spin degeneracy breaking in coupled thermal antenna lattices,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23475–23482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1875–1877 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klimeck, G.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

Korobkin, D.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

Larouche, S.

Laso, M. A. G.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leniec, M.

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liberman, V.

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Litchinitser, N. M.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, “Applied physics. Structured light meets structured matter,” Science 337(6098), 1054–1055 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metasurfaces for manipulating surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lopetegi, T.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maguid, E.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marqués, R.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martín, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masajada, J.

Neshev, D. N.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolskiy, K.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1875–1877 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, K.

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ottevaere, H.

Özdemir, S. K.

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozeri, D.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
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A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
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Pandey, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniagua-Dominguez, R.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Rho, J.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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Ritsch-Marte, M.

Sadatgol, M.

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, M. I.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical Negative-index Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shitrit, N.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

Sorolla, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramania, G. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suchowski, H.

Sun, J.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

Thienpont, H.

Tsukernik, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumkur, T.

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Urzhumov, Y.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veksler, D.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volyar, A. V.

T. A. Fadeeva, A. V. Volyar, and A. N. Alekseev, “Recognition of the interference spiral image in a fiber optical sensor employing optical vortices,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 30(8), 622–625 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. F.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.-K.

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yulevich, I.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frischwasser, I. Yulevich, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Rashba-like spin degeneracy breaking in coupled thermal antenna lattices,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23475–23482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metasurfaces for manipulating surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. O’Brien, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, H. Suchowski, B. Kante, Y. Park, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Reflective interferometry for optical metamaterial phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 4089–4091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, A. Y.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase diffractive optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metasurfaces for manipulating surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141101 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4700423 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tumkur, Y. Barnakov, S. T. Kee, M. A. Noginov, and V. Liberman, “Permittivity evaluation of multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials: ellipsometry vs. reflectometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(10), 103104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domınguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

V. P. Drachev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, A. V. Kildishev, G. Klimeck, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental verification of an optical negative-index material,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3(1), 49–55 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical Negative-index Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sadatgol, Ş. K. Özdemir, L. Yang, and D. Ö. Güney, “Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(3), 035502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (7)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, “Applied physics. Structured light meets structured matter,” Science 337(6098), 1054–1055 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. A. Fadeeva, A. V. Volyar, and A. N. Alekseev, “Recognition of the interference spiral image in a fiber optical sensor employing optical vortices,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 30(8), 622–625 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry, 1st Ed. (Academic, 2003).

P. Hariharan, Basics of Interferometry, 2nd Ed. (Academic, 2006).

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 470, 20140633(10) (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations, 1 Ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 2006).

L. Solymar and E. Shamonina, Waves in Metamaterials (Oxford University, New York, 2009).

W. Cai and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical Metamaterial Fundamentals and Applications” (Springer-Verlag NY, 2010).

M. A. Noginov and V. A. Podolskiy, Tutorials in Metamaterials, Series in Nano-Optics and Nanophotonics, (CRC, 2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical vortex interferometry.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 V-shaped antenna based metasurface samples. The angles between the two arms of V-shaped antennas in the arrays of 1, 2, 3, 4 are 60°, 90°, 120°, 180° corresponding to the phase shift of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, respectively. A 30-nm-thick gold film was deposited on a glass substrate. Then, 30-nm-wide grooves were milled in this gold film to form the antennas. The arm lengths and the split angles between the arms were varied to introduce 45 degrees phase changes between different parts of the sample. The scale bar of 200nm is the same in all the insets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photos of the spiral interference patterns from the 4 samples: (a) sample 1; (b) sample 2; (c) sample 3; (d) sample 4. The dots in (a) indicate the location of numerically extracted minima. The size of each photo is 1.5mm × 1.5mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fitting result for the first sample (a) and phase shift results for all 4 samples (b).

Equations (1)

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φ=a r 2 + b 0 ,

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