Abstract

Tunable resonant surface plasmons (SPs) based on graphene nanoribbon are studied to detect nanoscale protein molecules in mid-infrared (mid-IR) region. The two-dimensional nature of the collective oscillations of Dirac quasi-particles result in a strong electric field confinement of graphene plasmons, and lead to a large light overlap with the nanoscale biomolecules, which plays an essential role in the demonstrated high sensitivity in the detection of the refractive index of the nanometric-scale targeted protein molecule. Furthermore, Fermi level controlled resonant SPs in graphene nanostructure provide a unique capacity to control light in nanoscale to probe the protein chemical vibrations. Tunable resonant spectra selectivity combined with the super ambient condition sensitivity promise the graphene plasmons based device exciting prospects in future nanoscale biosensing.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Marini, I. Silveiro, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Molecular sensing with tunable graphene plasmons,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 876–882 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. J. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(9), 094006 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonicwaves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 9, 561 (1980).

Adato, R.

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Carrega, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Centeno, A.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, J.

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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Navickaite, G.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Y.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Otsuji, T.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. J. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(9), 094006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pertsch, T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesquera, A.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Polini, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. J. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(9), 094006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Principi, A.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruneri, V.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonicwaves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Regan, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodin, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rodrigo, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryzhii, V. J.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. J. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(9), 094006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schlather, A.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherrott, M.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonicwaves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silveiro, I.

A. Marini, I. Silveiro, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Molecular sensing with tunable graphene plasmons,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 876–882 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Taniguchi, T.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiemens, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Turner, M. D.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vélez, S.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vignale, G.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasserman, D.

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitz, R. T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woessner, A.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonicwaves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zurutuza, A.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7(3), 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonicwaves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. Marini, I. Silveiro, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Molecular sensing with tunable graphene plasmons,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 876–882 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

Y. Zhong, S. D. Malagari, T. Hamilton, and D. Wasserman, “Review of mid-infrared plasmonic materials,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093791 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 9, 561 (1980).

Nano Lett. (3)

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the graphene nanoribbon with width of W on a silicon (Si) substrate. The protein layer is immobilized on top of graphene. Cross section is depicted.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Near-field intensity image of the guided resonant graphene SPs in the nanoribbon graphene-silicon waveguide with ribbon width of (a) 100 nm, (b) 50 nm, (c) 16.5 nm and (d) 8 nm under TM polarization illumination. (e) The maximum intensity enhancement distribution at different ribbon width conditions with a fixed incident light wavelength of 6 µm and Fermi level of −0.3 eV. (f) Nanoribbon width distribution of the two SPs modes as a function of Fermi level to satisfy the resonant condition. (g) λP and W/λP with different Fermi levels at resonances. Solid lines correspond to λP. Dashed lines correspond to W/λP. Black lines denote the 0-th order resonant SPs mode and red lines denote the 1-st order resonant SPs mode in (f) and (g).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Maximum intensity enhancement of the 0-th order resonant SPs mode at W = 8 nm and the 1-st order resonant SPs mode at W = 16.5 nm as a function of the incident wavelength before (solid curves) and after (dashed curves) protein layer formation. (b) At resonant conditions, the wavelength shifts for the two SPs modes with different absolute value of Fermi levels.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Resonant wavelength (solid line) and the corresponding wavelength red shift (dash line, due to the above-immobilized protein layer) as a function of |EF| with dimensions of (a) W = 8 nm, and 16.5 nm and (b) W = 17.6 nm and 36.2 nm. (c)/(d) The distribution of ratio | E max ' / E max | 2 between the two maximum intensity enhancements with and without protein immobilization for the two resonant modes in (a)/(b) at different Fermi levels.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Effective mode index distribution of the guided resonant graphene SPs with different absolute values of Fermi level.

Equations (1)

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n eff = ( ε 1 + ε 2 )ω 4α| E F |

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