Abstract

Two orthogonal modulation optical label switching(OLS) schemes, which are based on payload of polarization multiplexing-differential quadrature phase shift keying(POLMUX-DQPSK or PDQ) modulated with identifications of duobinary (DB) label and pulse position modulation(PPM) label, are researched in high bit-rate OLS network. The BER performance of hybrid modulation with payload and label signals are discussed and evaluated in theory and simulation. The theoretical BER expressions of PDQ, PDQ-DB and PDQ-PPM are given with analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in different the bit-rate ratios of payload and label. Theoretical derivation results are shown that the payload of hybrid modulation has a certain gain of receiver sensitivity than payload without label. The sizes of payload BER gain obtained from hybrid modulation are related to the different types of label. The simulation results are consistent with that of theoretical conclusions. The extinction ratio (ER) conflicting between hybrid encoding of intensity and phase types can be compromised and optimized in OLS system of hybrid modulation. The BER analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in OLS system can be applied to other n-ary hybrid modulation or combination modulation systems.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, and P. Castoldi, “Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10-40-100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(9), 1248–1257 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Energy effciency in the future internet: the role of optical packet switching and Optical-Label Switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 406–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. H. Yang and X. Z. Ke, “BER of polarization PPM based on atmospheric optical communication,” Yiqi Yibiao Xuebao 31(7), 1665–1668 (2010).

2009 (2)

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Ng, and M. Chiang, “All-optical router with pulse-position modulation header processing in high-speed photonic packet switching networks,” IET Commun. 3(3), 465–476 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. M. Lei, J. Q. Lu, W. L. Yang, and H. T. Fu, “Multi-Parameter estimation for hybrid modulated FSK/PSK signals,” Electron. Info. Warfare Technol. 24(6), 9–13 (2009).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

I. Lyubomirsky and C. C. Chien, “Tailoring the duobinary pulse shape for optimum performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3732–3736 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

A. J. Phillips, R. A. Cryan, and J. M. Senior, “Performance evaluation of optically pre-amplified PPM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(5), 651–653 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Hickey and L. Kazovsky, “The STARNET coherent WDM computer communication network: experimental transceiver employing a novel modulation format,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 876–884 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Hickey, C. Barry, C. Noronha, and L. Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(5), 568–571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

Alvarado, A.

Barry, C.

M. Hickey, C. Barry, C. Noronha, and L. Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(5), 568–571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Batshon, H. G.

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bottari, G.

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Castoldi, P.

Cavaliere, F.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, H. W.

Chen, M. H.

Chi, N.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chiang, M.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Ng, and M. Chiang, “All-optical router with pulse-position modulation header processing in high-speed photonic packet switching networks,” IET Commun. 3(3), 465–476 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiang, P. Y.

K. Hu, L. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “A comparative study of 20-gb/s NRZ and duobinary signaling using statistical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. 20(7), 1336–1341 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. C.

Cryan, R. A.

A. J. Phillips, R. A. Cryan, and J. M. Senior, “Performance evaluation of optically pre-amplified PPM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(5), 651–653 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cugini, F.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davidson, C. R.

de Waardt, H.

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Elrefaie, A.

S. Hamid, A. Elrefaie, M. Hassan, and T. Landolsi, “Performance evaluation for 64-ary and 16-ary optically pre-amplified PPM systems with Fabry-Pérot filters and finite extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–4.

Fontaine, N. K.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foursa, D.

Fu, H. T.

X. M. Lei, J. Q. Lu, W. L. Yang, and H. T. Fu, “Multi-Parameter estimation for hybrid modulated FSK/PSK signals,” Electron. Info. Warfare Technol. 24(6), 9–13 (2009).

Galili, M.

Gaudino, R.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

Geisler, D. J.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geng, Y.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Ng, and M. Chiang, “All-optical router with pulse-position modulation header processing in high-speed photonic packet switching networks,” IET Commun. 3(3), 465–476 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goeger, G.

G. Goeger, C. Prodaniuc, Y. Ye, and Q. Zhang, “Transmission of intensity modulation-direct detection signals far beyond the dispersion limit enabled by phase-retrieval,” in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Goto, N.

Hamid, S.

S. Hamid, A. Elrefaie, M. Hassan, and T. Landolsi, “Performance evaluation for 64-ary and 16-ary optically pre-amplified PPM systems with Fabry-Pérot filters and finite extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–4.

Hassan, M.

S. Hamid, A. Elrefaie, M. Hassan, and T. Landolsi, “Performance evaluation for 64-ary and 16-ary optically pre-amplified PPM systems with Fabry-Pérot filters and finite extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–4.

He, T.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hickey, M.

M. Hickey and L. Kazovsky, “The STARNET coherent WDM computer communication network: experimental transceiver employing a novel modulation format,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 876–884 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Hickey, C. Barry, C. Noronha, and L. Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(5), 568–571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Holm-Nielsen, P. V.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, K.

K. Hu, L. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “A comparative study of 20-gb/s NRZ and duobinary signaling using statistical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. 20(7), 1336–1341 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iovanna, P.

Jeppesen, P.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ji, J.

Kazovsky, L.

M. Hickey and L. Kazovsky, “The STARNET coherent WDM computer communication network: experimental transceiver employing a novel modulation format,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 876–884 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Hickey, C. Barry, C. Noronha, and L. Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(5), 568–571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ke, X. Z.

L. H. Yang and X. Z. Ke, “BER of polarization PPM based on atmospheric optical communication,” Yiqi Yibiao Xuebao 31(7), 1665–1668 (2010).

Khoe, G. D.

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kishikawa, H.

Koonen, A. M. J.

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Landolsi, T.

S. Hamid, A. Elrefaie, M. Hassan, and T. Landolsi, “Performance evaluation for 64-ary and 16-ary optically pre-amplified PPM systems with Fabry-Pérot filters and finite extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–4.

Lei, X. M.

X. M. Lei, J. Q. Lu, W. L. Yang, and H. T. Fu, “Multi-Parameter estimation for hybrid modulated FSK/PSK signals,” Electron. Info. Warfare Technol. 24(6), 9–13 (2009).

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Ng, and M. Chiang, “All-optical router with pulse-position modulation header processing in high-speed photonic packet switching networks,” IET Commun. 3(3), 465–476 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liu, X.

Lu, J. Q.

X. M. Lei, J. Q. Lu, W. L. Yang, and H. T. Fu, “Multi-Parameter estimation for hybrid modulated FSK/PSK signals,” Electron. Info. Warfare Technol. 24(6), 9–13 (2009).

Luo, J.

Lyubomirsky, I.

Mather, P. J.

Mazurczyk, M.

Medhin, A. K.

Mizote, K.

Mohs, G.

Monroy, I. T.

K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Monroy, T.

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nejabati, R.

Ng, W.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Ng, and M. Chiang, “All-optical router with pulse-position modulation header processing in high-speed photonic packet switching networks,” IET Commun. 3(3), 465–476 (2009).
[Crossref]

Noronha, C.

M. Hickey, C. Barry, C. Noronha, and L. Kazovsky, “Experimental PSK/ASK transceiver for the STARNET WDM computer communication network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(5), 568–571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Patterson, W.

Peng, S.

Peucheret, C.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
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K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
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Sambo, N.

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Sun, Y.

Tkach, R. W.

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T. Monroy, E. J. M. Verdurmen, S. Sulur, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, J. Zhang, and C. Peucheret, “Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(1), 31–49 (2004).
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K. G. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 9–15 (2003).
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Wu, L.

K. Hu, L. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “A comparative study of 20-gb/s NRZ and duobinary signaling using statistical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. 20(7), 1336–1341 (2012).
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Xu, L.

N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

Yanagiya, S.

Yang, L. H.

L. H. Yang and X. Z. Ke, “BER of polarization PPM based on atmospheric optical communication,” Yiqi Yibiao Xuebao 31(7), 1665–1668 (2010).

Yang, S.

Yang, W. L.

X. M. Lei, J. Q. Lu, W. L. Yang, and H. T. Fu, “Multi-Parameter estimation for hybrid modulated FSK/PSK signals,” Electron. Info. Warfare Technol. 24(6), 9–13 (2009).

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N. Chi, L. Xu, J. F. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, and P. Jeppesen, “Transmission and optical label swapping for 4X40 Gb/s WDM signals deploying orthogonal ASK/DPSK labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1325–1327 (2005).
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G. Goeger, C. Prodaniuc, Y. Ye, and Q. Zhang, “Transmission of intensity modulation-direct detection signals far beyond the dispersion limit enabled by phase-retrieval,” in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.
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S. J. B. Yoo, “Energy effciency in the future internet: the role of optical packet switching and Optical-Label Switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 406–418 (2011).
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T. He, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010).
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[Crossref]

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IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, “Quantum limit of direct-detection receivers using duobinary transmission,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15(1), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. (1)

K. Hu, L. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “A comparative study of 20-gb/s NRZ and duobinary signaling using statistical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. 20(7), 1336–1341 (2012).
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IET Commun. (1)

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Yiqi Yibiao Xuebao (1)

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Other (4)

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G. Goeger, C. Prodaniuc, Y. Ye, and Q. Zhang, “Transmission of intensity modulation-direct detection signals far beyond the dispersion limit enabled by phase-retrieval,” in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 BER vs. S N R b of DQPSK and PDQ with different ϕ N L 2 .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 BER vs. S N R b of PDQ-PPM, PDQ and PPM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER vs. S N R b of PDQ-PPM with different δ .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 BER vs. S N R b of PDQ-DB, PDQ and DB.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER vs. S N R b of PDQ-DB with different δ .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 BER vs. S N R b of PDQ-ASK with different δ .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic OLS system of PDQ-DB and PDQ-PPM.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The 2.5Gb/s label signal waveforms of DB (a), PPM (c) and 100G/s payload waveforms of PDQ-DB (b) and PDQ-PPM (d) in OLS hybrid modulation systems.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 BER vs. S N R b of three hybrid modulation code .
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 BER of PDQ with different labels after erased.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 BER of PDQ/PPM, PDQ/DB and PDQ/ASK at different transmission distance system.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Q factors of DB label system at different ERs.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Q factor of PDQ-PPM, PDQ-DB and PDQ-ASK with ERs.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 BER of payload before (PDQ-PPM) and after (PDQ) PPM label erased.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of two systems of PDQ-PPM and PDQ-DB.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B E R 1 2 e r f c ( Q 2 ) exp ( Q 2 2 ) Q 2 π
B E R P D Q = 1 2 e r f c ( ( π 4 ( 1 2 ρ ( ξ sin ( ξ ) ) 2 + σ N L 2 ) 1 / 2 ) / 2 )
σ S P M 2 = 4 ϕ N L 2 / 3 S N R s y m
ϕ N L = γ P 0 L e f f N
B E R P D Q P P M = { B E R P P M ( 1 2 δ + 1 ) + ( 1 B E R P P M ) 4 B E R P D Q } / 5
B E R P P M = 1 / 2 exp ( S N R b 2 )
B E R P D Q D B = { B E R D B ( δ + 1 ) + ( 1 B E R D B ) 4 B E R P D Q } / 5
B E R D B = 0.5 { ( 1 + V t h ) exp ( V t h ) + 1 Q 2 ( π O S N R , 2 V t h ) }
s ( t ) = cos ( π [ t T 1 2 ] ) π t T ( 1 t T )
B E R P D Q A S K = { B E R A S K ( δ + 1 ) + ( 1 B E R A S K ) 4 B E R P D Q } / 5

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