Abstract

We report here on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor employing a quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure capable of operating in a pure amplitude or wavelength modulation configuration. The QCL structure is composed of three electrically independent sections: Gain, Phase (PS) and Master Oscillator (MO). Selective current pumping of these three sections allows obtaining laser wavelength tuning without changes in the optical power, and power modulation without emission wavelength shifts. A pure QEPAS amplitude modulation condition is obtained by modulating the PS current, while pure wavelength modulation is achieved by modulating simultaneously the MO and PS QCL sections and slowly scanning the DC current level injected in the PS section.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5803–5815 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bain, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernacki, B. E.

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bidaux, Y.

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bismuto, A.

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Bomse, D. S.

Borri, S.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A. L.

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duffin, K.

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, and D. G. Moodie, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: a calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute gas absorption line shapes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 3114–3125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geras, A.

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giglio, M.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gresch, T.

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

Harren, F. J. M.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnstone, W.

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, and D. G. Moodie, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: a calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute gas absorption line shapes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 3114–3125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5803–5815 (1999).
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Kriesel, J.

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lengden, M.

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
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K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lindberg, Å. M.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

McGettrick, A. J.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moeskops, B. W. M.

Moodie, D. G.

Muller, A.

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Muller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patimisco, P.

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiansuo, Y.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert, P.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruxton, K.

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

Sampaolo, A.

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Scamarcio, G.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48(2), 154–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42(33), 6728–6738 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, J. A.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, V.

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Stanton, A. C.

Starecki, T.

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stewart, G.

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, and D. G. Moodie, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: a calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute gas absorption line shapes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 3114–3125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strubi, G.

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Terazzi, R.

A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, and A. Muller, “High performance, low dissipation quantum cascade lasers across the mid-IR range,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5477–5484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thévenaz, L.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48(2), 154–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42(33), 6728–6738 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

F. K. Tittel, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, T. Starecki, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of overtone flexural modes operation in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(6), A682–A692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanjun, D.

Zhimin, P.

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2079–2087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, “Mid-infrared fiber-coupled QCL-QEPAS sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 112(1), 25–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, L. Dong, A. Geras, G. Scamarcio, T. Starecki, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231102 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. R. P. Bain, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and W. Johnstone, “An absolute absorption line shapes in tunable diode laser spectroscopy using external amplitude modulation with balanced detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 16, 675–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Allan deviation plot as a tool for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors noise analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(4), 555–560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48(2), 154–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Bidaux, R. Terazzi, A. Bismuto, T. Gresch, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(9), 093101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. (2)

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 227, 539–546 (2016).

K. Ruxton, A. L. Chakraborty, W. Johnstone, M. Lengden, G. Stewart, and K. Duffin, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in a phasor decomposition approach,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 150, 367–375 (2010).

Sensors (Basel) (2)

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chang, J. Chang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang, C. Tian, W. Wei, and Y. Liu, “Immunity to laser power variation in a DFB diode laser based optical gas sensor using a division process,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 9582–9591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - An extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Y. Bidaux, A. Bismuto, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. Gresch, G. Strubi, S. Blaser, F. K. Tittel, V. Spagnolo, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Mid infrared quantum cascade laser operating in pure amplitude modulation for background-free trace gas spectroscopy,” Opt. Express. in press.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Emission spectra of the investigated QCL at different MO currents while the injected current in the PS and the Gain section is fixed to 120 mA and 800 mA, respectively. The temperature of the heat sink of the QCL was set to 10 °C. Inset: Peak values of the emission spectra plotted as a function of the MO current. The solid line is the linear fit to the experimental data (y = 1283.36 cm−1 – 0.011cm−1/mA).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Representative QCL emission spectra obtained at IMO = 532.1 mA, IG = 800 mA, and for different IPS values. No wavelength shift was observed, while IPS ranges from 20 to 75 mA and from 100 to 140 mA. (b) Optical power emitted by the QCL as a function of the PS current (IMO = 532.1 mA and IG = 800 mA) measured by means of an infrared detector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the QEPAS experimental setup employed for the detection of N2O in a gas mixture composed of 1% N2O in pure N2, at a pressure of 85 Torr. QCL – Quantum Cascade Laser. ADM – Acoustic Detection Module.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a, b) Pictures of the employed ADM. (c, d) Pictures of the transimpedance amplifier circuit mounted inside the housing of the ADM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Peak values of the QEPAS spectral scans acquired using WM and 2f-detection plotted as a function of different modulation depths of the sine waveform applied to the MO section current. (b) 2f-QEPAS spectral scan of the selected N2O absorption line with the QEPAS sensor operating in the WM mode. The current of the PS section was fixed at 120 mA while both a slow ramp at a frequency of 20 mHz and a sine frequency of 1435.88 Hz and amplitude of 2.7 mA were applied to the MO section. The integration time of the lock-in amplifier was set to 100 ms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Current values of the PS section, which maintain the QCL optical power (P = 29.6 mW, see inset) constant as the MO section current varies from 522 mA to 542 mA. The solid line is the linear fit to the experimental data. (b) 2f-QEPAS spectral scan of the selected N2O absorption line with the QEPAS sensor operating in a pure WM condition. The current of the PS section was adjusted point-by-point while the MO current varies from 522 mA to 542 mA, by using the calibration data of panel (a). A slow ramp at a frequency of 20 mHz and a sine wave at a frequency of 1435.88 Hz and amplitude of 2.2 mA were simultaneously applied to the MO section; a sine wave at the same frequency and amplitude 1.6 mA was applied to the PS section.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fourier transform of a truncated sine waveform at frequency f0. Inset: Representative truncated sine function in the time-domain.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Peak values of the QEPAS signal acquired wit pure amplitude modulation, 1f (a) and 2f (b) detection as a function of the modulation depth of the sine applied to the PS section.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 QEPAS spectral scan of the selected N2O absorption line with the QEPAS sensor operating in a pure AM condition with 1f (a) and 2f (b) detection. The PS current was dithered with a sinusoidal waveform at a frequency of 2,871.76 Hz and amplitude of 23.0 mA for 1f-detection (a), and at a frequency of 1,435.88 Hz and amplitude of 17.6 mA for 2f-detection (b). A slow ramp at a frequency of 20 mHz was applied to MO section in both cases.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Allan deviation plot in mV of the QEPAS sensor signal operating in pure AM with 1f detection (red line) and in pure WM with 2f detection (black line) as a function of lock-in integration time.

Equations (6)

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α[ υ( t ) ]=α( υ 0 )+α'( υ 0 )Δυcos( ωt+ψ )+ 1 2 α''( υ 0 )Δ υ 2 cos 2 ( ωt+ψ )
I t (t)=( I 0 +ΔIcos( ωt ) )[ 1α( υ 0 )Lα'( υ 0 )Δυcos( ωt+ψ )L 1 2 α''( υ 0 )Δ υ 2 cos 2 ( ωt+ψ )L ]
I 1f =ΔIcos( ωt )ΔIα( υ 0 )Lcos( ωt ) I 0 α'( υ 0 )Δυcos( ωt+ψ )L
I 2f =ΔIα'( υ 0 )Δυcos( ωt )cos( ωt+ψ )L+ 1 4 I 0 α''( υ 0 )Δ υ 2 cos[ 2( ωt+ψ ) ]L
I( t ) I 0,ω cos( ωt )+ I 0,2ω cos( 2ωt )
I t ( t )[ I 0,ω cos( ω t )+ I 0,2ω cos( 2ω t ) ][ 1α( υ )L ]

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