Abstract

Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operating around 2.76 THz are investigated in metal-metal waveguide. The design consists of one conventional long slit and two additional short slits aside in a single unit cell. Based on the symmetric modes, the two short slits provide radiating components in phase to form higher beam quality. Meanwhile the long slit provides the main feedback and lower extracted power with out-of-phased components, which contributes less to the beam. The surface-current analysis method is first introduced in QCL to analyze the losses between symmetric and anti-symmetric modes as the distance of the two short slits changes. The designed band-edge mode operates at a relative low loss, and a main single lobe is achieved with low side lobe level.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Y. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Phase-locked laser arrays through global antenna mutual coupling,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 541–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (3)

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Kumar, “Recent progress in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 38–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2003 (2)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Witjaksono and D. Botez, “Surface-emitting, single-lobe operation from second-order distributed-reflector lasers with central grating phaseshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andronico, A.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkin, M.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botez, D.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Witjaksono and D. Botez, “Surface-emitting, single-lobe operation from second-order distributed-reflector lasers with central grating phaseshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coudevylle, J. R.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

Filloux, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grattan, K. T. V.

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halioua, Y.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

T. Y. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Phase-locked laser arrays through global antenna mutual coupling,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 541–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, T. Y.

T. Y. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Phase-locked laser arrays through global antenna mutual coupling,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 541–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

Khanal, S.

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. P.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, “Recent progress in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 38–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lachab, M.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lampin, J. F.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. W.

Leo, G.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Surface emitting terahertz quantum cascade laser with a double-metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11672–11680 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macomber, S.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moumdji, S.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qin, Q.

Rahman, B. M. A.

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

T. Y. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Phase-locked laser arrays through global antenna mutual coupling,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 541–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanvir, H.

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, C.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Finite size effects in surface emitting Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6703–6709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei Min Lee, A.

Williams, B. S.

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Witjaksono, G.

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Witjaksono and D. Botez, “Surface-emitting, single-lobe operation from second-order distributed-reflector lasers with central grating phaseshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Witzigmann, B.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

Y. Halioua, G. Xu, S. Moumdji, L. Li, J. Zhu, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Colombelli, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting graded-photonic-heterostructure terahertz semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6915–6923 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G. Y.

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade laser with micro-transverse-electromagnetic-horn antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Witjaksono and D. Botez, “Surface-emitting, single-lobe operation from second-order distributed-reflector lasers with central grating phaseshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, Y. Halioua, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Stable single-mode operation of surface-emitting terahertz lasers with graded photonic heterostructure resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. Tanvir, B. M. A. Rahman, and K. T. V. Grattan, “A higher order lateral mode suppression scheme for terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(1), 8501106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, “Recent progress in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 38–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Li, G. Witjaksono, S. Macomber, and D. Botez, “Analysis of surface-emitting second-order distributed feedback lasers with central grating phaseshift,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1153–1165 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Gellie, W. Maineult, A. Andronico, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, Y. Chassagneux, J. R. Coudevylle, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Effect of transverse mode structure on the far field pattern of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124513 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Kao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Phase-locked laser arrays through global antenna mutual coupling,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 541–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457(7226), 174–178 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

C. Wu, S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultranarrow beam,” Optica 3(7), 734740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Y. Kao, X. Cai, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Microstrip-antenna-coupled distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8993, 89930E (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top view of the Ez components in the active region: (a) symmetric mode and (b) anti-symmetric mode. Top view of the surface current intensity on the underlying surface of the top metal: (c) symmetric mode and (d) anti-symmetric mode. The envelope of the guided fieldintensity along the cavity with single slit: (e) symmetric mode and (f) anti-symmetric mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Top view of the Ez components of the proposed structure: (a) symmetric mode and (b) anti-symmetric mode. Top view of radiating electric field components Ex on a reference plane 1um above the slits: (c) symmetric mode and (d) anti-symmetric mode. The size of the two additional slits: a = 12μm and b = 6μm. The envelope of the guided fieldintensity along the cavity with three slits in a unit cell: (e) symmetric mode and (f) anti-symmetric mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The effect of the variation of d on (a) the losses and (b) the real part of the eigen-frequency.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top view of the surface current intensity on the underlying surface of the top metal of the proposed structure: (a) symmetric mode and (b) anti-symmetric mode, the contact layer under the slits should be removed in the fabrication. (c) The normalized amplitude of the electric fields of the symmetric mode along the centre of the active region below the long slit, where the maximum of the fields is located. (d) The normalized amplitude of the electric fields of the anti-symmetric mode along the centre of the active region below the two short slits in the transverse direction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Mode spectrum for the finite length (15 periods) of the designed structure with d = 48μm. The estimated effective refractive index is 3.52. The estimated gain spectrum of the gain medium plotted is in the shaded region, which can be used to favour the laser of single mode. Lower band-edge mode operating in symmetric electric field distribution denoted by A: (b) Ez components and (c) the amplitude of electric fields in the centre of the active region, Ex components (d) 5μm and (e) 20μm above the top metal. (f) Ex components 5μm above the top metal of the upper band-edge mode operating in anti-symmetric electric field distribution denoted by B. (g) Amplitude of electric fields in the centre of the active region of the mode with frequency 2.62THz denoted by C. Figure 5(d), (b) and (f) share one scale bar. The maximum value of the scale bar is 0.2 in Fig. 5(e) in line with Fig. 5(b)(d)(e) numerically. The width of the exposed contact layer on either side of the ridge in the y-axis direction is 10μm and that on the end of the ridge Lend is 50μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Calculated far-field beam pattern in the UV coordinate system (U = sinθ*cosφ, V = sinθ*sinφ). The color bar is in logarithmic scale. (b) Calculated normalized co-pol and cr-pol radiation patterns in both the E-plane and H-plane.

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