Abstract

Generally, for transflective liquid crystal displays with different modes and different cell gaps between the refractive and transmissive parts, precise process control to pattern the electrode and match the cell gaps may reduce the yield and thus, require high cost. This paper proposes a simple transflective liquid crystal display with a single-mode and single-cell thickness without a patterned electrode to achieve better productivity. The proposed transflective liquid crystal display consists of three half-wave retardation films, two quarter-wave retardation films, and an LC layer, whose optical performance was confirmed by both simulation and experiment. The optimal optical configuration to obtain an excellent dark state in the visible range was determined by the Mueller matrices calculus, which was applied to each optical component. The calculated and experimental results showed that the proposed transflective LC structure has excellent electro-optical properties and is expected to have many liquid crystal display applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. G. J. Choi and J. S. Gwag, “Optical design for reflective liguid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 613(1), 103–109 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 3080–3081 (2005).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  39. H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

2015 (3)

G. J. Choi, H. Yokoyama, and J. S. Gwag, “Reflective liquid crystal display for better productivity,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3360–3364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Choi and J. S. Gwag, “Optical design for reflective liguid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 613(1), 103–109 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041108 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9431–9438 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 15–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 3080–3081 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Y. Lee and S. T. Lee, “Layer-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,1-ethylenedioxythiophene):silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S.-H. Chen and C.-L. Yang, “Dynamics of twisted nematic liquid crystal pi-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3721–3723 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

M. P. de Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and M. J. A. de Voigt, “Stability of the interface between indium-tin-oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) in polymer light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2255–2257 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. D. Lee, G. H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Yoon, G. D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed‐mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1455–1457 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1455–1457 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 2A), L177–L179 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Beran, “Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41(71), 130–144 (1956).

Bae, J.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baek, H. L.

H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

Baldo, M. A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Beran, “Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Beran, “Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[Crossref]

Brock, P. J.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Chen, J.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-H.

S.-H. Chen and C.-L. Yang, “Dynamics of twisted nematic liquid crystal pi-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3721–3723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. Y.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Cheng, H. C.

Choi, G. J.

G. J. Choi and J. S. Gwag, “Optical design for reflective liguid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 613(1), 103–109 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. J. Choi, H. Yokoyama, and J. S. Gwag, “Reflective liquid crystal display for better productivity,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3360–3364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

Chung, K.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Jong, M. P.

M. P. de Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and M. J. A. de Voigt, “Stability of the interface between indium-tin-oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) in polymer light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2255–2257 (2000).
[Crossref]

de Voigt, M. J. A.

M. P. de Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and M. J. A. de Voigt, “Stability of the interface between indium-tin-oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) in polymer light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2255–2257 (2000).
[Crossref]

DiPietro, R.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. Y.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 15–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Goitia, J. A.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gwag, J. S.

G. J. Choi and J. S. Gwag, “Optical design for reflective liguid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 613(1), 103–109 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. J. Choi, H. Yokoyama, and J. S. Gwag, “Reflective liquid crystal display for better productivity,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3360–3364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Jhun and J. S. Gwag, “Improved vertically-aligned nematic mode for high performance displays,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(6), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, “Advanced patterned vertical aligned nematic mode to elevate transmittance,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(1), 78–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Single-cell gap-transflective liquid crystal display using two optical modes of a bistable liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1333–1337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, “Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18102–18108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, “Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18102–18108 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2663–2669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. S.

H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

Han, M.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heo, K. C.

K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirota, S.

S. Hirota, S. Oka, and O. Itou, “Transflective LCD combining transmissive IPS and reflective in-cell retarder ECB,” SID Symp., 1661–1664 (2007).

Hong, M.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

Huang, H. C.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Itou, O.

S. Hirota, S. Oka, and O. Itou, “Transflective LCD combining transmissive IPS and reflective in-cell retarder ECB,” SID Symp., 1661–1664 (2007).

Jhun, C. J.

Kaufman, J. H.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. G.

H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

Kim, G. H.

G. D. Lee, G. H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2663–2669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. D. Lee, G. H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Yoon, G. D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, K. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-E.

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. I.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. B.

H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.-S.

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J. H.

K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Single-cell gap-transflective liquid crystal display using two optical modes of a bistable liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1333–1337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S. B.

H. L. Baek, Y. B. Kim, K. S. Ha, D. G. Kim, and S. B. Kwon, “New design of transflective LCD with single retardation film,” in Proceedings of the International Display Workshops (2000), pp. 41–44.

Lai, C. M.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Lee, G. D.

G. D. Lee, G. H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Yoon, G. D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-D.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. L.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee and S. T. Lee, “Layer-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,1-ethylenedioxythiophene):silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 3080–3081 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

J. Y. Lee and S. T. Lee, “Layer-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,1-ethylenedioxythiophene):silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Li, Y. W.

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 3080–3081 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, I. J.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Lin, T. C.

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, K. H.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Lu, R.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 2A), L177–L179 (1995).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. F.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oka, S.

S. Hirota, S. Oka, and O. Itou, “Transflective LCD combining transmissive IPS and reflective in-cell retarder ECB,” SID Symp., 1661–1664 (2007).

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 41(71), 130–144 (1956).

Park, D.-J.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, K.-H.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roh, N.-S.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Salem, J.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. C.

J. C. Scott, J. H. Kaufman, P. J. Brock, R. DiPietro, J. Salem, and J. A. Goitia, “Degradation and failure of MEH‐PPV light‐emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2745–2751 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Sheu, C. R.

K. H. Liu, C. Y. Cheng, Y. R. Shen, C. M. Lai, C. R. Sheu, Y. Y. Fan, C. C. Chen, and I. J. Lin, “A novel double gamma driving transflective TFT LCD,”in Proceedings of the International Display Manufacturers Conference (2003), pp. 215–218.

Shoustikov, A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sibley, S.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Son, P. K.

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Single-cell gap-transflective liquid crystal display using two optical modes of a bistable liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1333–1337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective liquid crystal display with single cell gap and single gamma curve,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 3080–3081 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. T.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 2A), L177–L179 (1995).
[Crossref]

van IJzendoorn, L. J.

M. P. de Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and M. J. A. de Voigt, “Stability of the interface between indium-tin-oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) in polymer light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2255–2257 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wong, M.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed‐mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1455–1457 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-S.

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1455–1457 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(11), 1455–1457 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. X.

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, Z. Ge, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 15–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 2A), L177–L179 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-L.

S.-H. Chen and C.-L. Yang, “Dynamics of twisted nematic liquid crystal pi-cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3721–3723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Yang, J. Y. Choi, J. Kim, M. Han, J. Chang, J. Bae, D.-J. Park, S. I. Kim, N.-S. Roh, Y.-J. Kim, M. Hong, and K. Chung, “Single cell gap transflective mode for vertically aligned negative nematic liquid crystals,” SID Symp., 829–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yeung, F. S.

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.

K. C. Heo, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “High contrast reflective liquid crystal display using a thermochromic reflector,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025401 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Single-cell gap-transflective liquid crystal display using two optical modes of a bistable liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1333–1337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, M. H.

Yokoyama, H.

G. J. Choi, H. Yokoyama, and J. S. Gwag, “Reflective liquid crystal display for better productivity,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3360–3364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoneya, M.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2663–2669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Two domain hybrid-aligned nematic cell fabricated by ion beam treatment of vertical alignment layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4A), 1875–1878 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. D. Lee, G. H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Yoon, G. D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Y.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, F. H.

S. T. Tang, F. H. Yu, J. Chen, M. Wong, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5924–5929 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. H.

P. K. Son, S. H. Yu, J. Yi, J. H. Kwon, and J. S. Gwag, “Electro-optical characteristics of two domain normally black-electrically controlled birefringence mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 064506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Y. Lee and S. T. Lee, “Layer-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,1-ethylenedioxythiophene):silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, R. Lu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective liquid crystal display using commonly biased reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221111 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed transflective LC cell designed for single-mode and single-cell gap: (a) dark state and (b) bright state.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Poincare sphere schematics describing the polarization path of incident light in the proposed transflective mode: (a) optically dark state of the reflective part, (b) optically bright state of the reflective part, (c) optically dark state of the transmissive part, and (d) optically bright state of the transmissive part.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated dispersion characteristics in grey level of the proposed transflective LCD: (a) the result in the reflective part and (b) the result in the transmissive part.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental dispersion characteristics in grey level of the proposed transflective LCD: (a) the result in the reflective part and (b) the result in the transmissive part. The insets show photo-images according to the applied voltages of the fabricated a reflective and a transmissive LC cells.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated and experimental reflectance and transmittance curves according to the applied voltages.

Equations (2)

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M( θ,α )=[ 1 0 0 cos 2 2θ+cosα sin 2 2θ 0 0 (1cosα)sin2θcos2θ sinαsin2θ 0 (1cosα)sin2θcos2θ 0 sinαsin2θ sin 2 2θ+cosα cos 2 2θ sinαcos2θ sinαcos2θ cosα ]
S 0 = M H3 ( θ H3 ,π) M Q2 ( θ Q2 , π 2 ) M L ( θ L ,π) M H2 ( θ H2 ,π) M Q1 ( θ Q1 , π 2 ) M H1 ( θ H1 ,π) S I

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