Abstract

Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

12 September 2016: A correction was made to the author affiliations.


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References

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2016 (1)

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bartolozzi, I.

Beckx, S.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. K.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eu-Jin, A. L.

Fang, Q.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Song, X. Luo, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “On-chip quasi-digital optical switch using silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12767–12775 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, J. S. Kee, K. Han, C. Li, M. K. Park, X. Tu, H. Zhang, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y.-J. Yoon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17931–17940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Feng, S.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

Hane, K.

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jaenen, P.

Jia, L.

Jia, L.-X.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanamori, Y.

Kee, J. S.

Kokubun, Y.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwong, D. L.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. G.

Li, C.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Song, X. Luo, J. S. Kee, K. Han, C. Li, M. K. Park, X. Tu, H. Zhang, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y.-J. Yoon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17931–17940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E. J.

Lim, A. E.-J.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Lo, G.

Lo, G. Q.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, X.

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “On-chip quasi-digital optical switch using silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12767–12775 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, J. S. Kee, K. Han, C. Li, M. K. Park, X. Tu, H. Zhang, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y.-J. Yoon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17931–17940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.-S.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, M. K.

Poon, A.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schacht, E.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Song, J.

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Song, X. Luo, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “On-chip quasi-digital optical switch using silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12767–12775 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, J. S. Kee, K. Han, C. Li, M. K. Park, X. Tu, H. Zhang, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y.-J. Yoon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17931–17940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.-F.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

Takahashi, K.

Tao, S. H.

Tern, R. P.-C.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Tu, X.-G.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Urino, Y.

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wouters, J.

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.-J.

Yu, M.

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, H.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, H.-F.

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Arakawa, T. Nakamura, Y. Urino, and T. Fujita, “Silicon photonics for next generation system integration platform,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 72–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, J. S. Kee, K. Han, C. Li, M. K. Park, X. Tu, H. Zhang, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y.-J. Yoon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based optoelectronic integrated circuit for label-free bio/chemical sensor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17931–17940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, A. L. Eu-Jin, X. Luo, Y. Huang, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Microring resonator photodetector for enhancement in L-band performance,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26976–26984 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takahashi, Y. Kanamori, Y. Kokubun, and K. Hane, “A wavelength-selective add-drop switch using silicon microring resonator with a submicron-comb electrostatic actuator,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14421–14428 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, X. Luo, X. Tu, L. Jia, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “On-chip quasi-digital optical switch using silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12767–12775 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J.-F. Song, X.-S. Luo, A. E.-J. Lim, C. Li, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, L.-X. Jia, X.-G. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-F. Zhou, and G.-Q. Lo, “Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22616 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. Eigenmann and D. J. Lilja, “Von Neumann computers” https://www.sonoma.edu/users/f/farahman/sonoma/ courses/es310/resources/10.1.1.78.4336.pdf
[Crossref]

T. Hino, H. Takeshita, M. Sakauchi, K. Ishii, J. Kurumida, S. Namiki, S. Takahashi, S. Nakamura, and A. Tajima, “Silicon photonics based transponder aggregator for next generation ROADM systems,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.3.A.5.
[Crossref]

J. Song, Q. Fang, T. Liow, H. Cai, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “CWDM planar concave grating multiplexer/demultiplexer and application in ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JThA020.
[Crossref]

P. Cappelletti, C. Golla, P. Olivo, and E. Zanoni, Flash Memories (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999).

G. Cong, T. Matsukawa, K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Kim, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, M. Ohno, H. Kuwastuka, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, H. Ishikawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Power-efficient gray-scale control of silicon thermo-optic phase shifters by pulse width modulation using monolithically integrated MOSFET,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B.7.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section illustration of optical waveguide structure used in our study. WG: waveguide. FG: floating gate. CG: control gate. S: source. D: drain.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with 160-nm-thick silicon deposited on 2-μm-thick buried oxide (BOX). (b) Etching of silicon ridge waveguide with hard mask. (c) Deposition of oxide and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). (d) Deposition of 8-nm thermal oxide and 100-nm poly-Si through low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). (e) Deposition of oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) and 100-nm poly-Si through LPCVD. (f) Fabrication of open source contact window. (g) Deposition of SiO2/SiN spacer. (h) Formation of control gate. (i) Formation of floating gate. (j) Opening of drain window and implantation. (k) Fabrication of SiO2 cladding. (l) Waveguide structure with first metal layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of photonics memory waveguide. (b) Magnified image of poly-Si/gate oxide/c-Si waveguide. (c) Magnified image of poly-Si/ONO/poly-Si structure. (d) Magnified image of poly-Si/ONO/poly-Si/gate oxide/c-Si structure. Crystalline silicon (c-Si), poly-Si floating gate, and poly-Si control gate are indicated by light red, light yellow, and light blue colors, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of add/drop microring resonator memory cell. (b) Through and drop terminal spectra of add/drop microring resonator. Through/drop terminal spectra curves are shown at bottom and top, respectively. The curves are dependent on the electrical voltage pulse width. The optical microscope (OM) image of the add/drop microring resonator device is shown inset.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Drop terminal spectrum with square-pulse-voltage operation. (b) Oscillation wavelength blue-shift with pulse width. (c) Optical power attenuation with pulse width at OFF-state oscillation wavelength.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) demux. (b) Optical microscope (OM) image of memory functional WDM with 4-channel Add/Drop memory functional MRR integration array. (c) Spectra at drop terminals for ON and OFF states. Red color curves indicate the OFF state and blue color curves indicate the ON state.

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