Abstract

We present the design of a plasmonic quadrant lens (QL) which is capable of coupling the light from free space into surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and focusing them into four directions, depending on the polarization content of the incident light. The lens is composed of a set of uniform nanogrooves etched on a gold film. Two types of QLs with four and eight foci are realized. We further propose QLs as a plasmonic version of well-known quadrant detectors for beam-position sensing through a center location algorithm. The sensitivity of the device is also investigated for both linear and circular polarized incidences. Calculation results show that the four-focus QL offers a large effective detecting area and the eight-focus QL enables beam-position sensing to be operated with two different sensitivities simultaneously.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

G. M. Lerman and U. Levy, “Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1100–1105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bian, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “A broadband nanosensor based on multi-interference of surface plasmon polaritons,” Plasmonics 8(2), 741–744 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Manojlović, “Quadrant photodetector sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3461–3469 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

X. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Zhao, and Q. Gong, “Refractive index sensor based on surface-plasmon interference,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 392–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

S. H. Chang, S. Gray, and G. Schatz, “Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3150–3165 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3–4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abel-Tiberini, L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, T.

T. Bian, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “A broadband nanosensor based on multi-interference of surface plasmon polaritons,” Plasmonics 8(2), 741–744 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickinson, M. R.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

T. Bian, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “A broadband nanosensor based on multi-interference of surface plasmon polaritons,” Plasmonics 8(2), 741–744 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahi, R. H.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galler, N.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

Gray, S.

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lereu, A. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman and U. Levy, “Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1100–1105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman and U. Levy, “Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1100–1105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S. G.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manojlovic, L. M.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3–4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nelson, R. L.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, D.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitter, M. C.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, N. W.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G.

See, C. W.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shin, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3–4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sobhani, H.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Somekh, M. G.

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, W.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetard, L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thundat, T.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, C. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Multifunctional and multi-output plasmonic meta-elements for integrated optical circuits,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22753–22762 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3–4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

T. Bian, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “A broadband nanosensor based on multi-interference of surface plasmon polaritons,” Plasmonics 8(2), 741–744 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhu, X.

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Zhang, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, M. C. Pitter, and S. G. Liu, “Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy with solid immersion excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5451–5453 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (6)

G. M. Lerman and U. Levy, “Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1100–1105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Q. Peng, W. Song, F. Hao, J. Wang, P. Nordlander, and X. Zhu, “Plasmonic focusing in symmetry broken nanocorrals,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 893–897 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, R. H. Farahi, L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Tetard, and T. Thundat, “Spectroscopy and imaging of arrays of nanorods toward nanopolarimetry,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045701 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 365–370 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3–4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, “Surface plasmon optical tweezers: tunable optical manipulation in the femtonewton range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 186804 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

T. Bian, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “A broadband nanosensor based on multi-interference of surface plasmon polaritons,” Plasmonics 8(2), 741–744 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with Active Optical Antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on grating (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the four-focus QL, which consists of identical square-shaped nanogrooves fabricated on a gold film. All grooves are positioned in a square grid. Both the side length of the grooves and the grid length are a. The arrangement of grooves in the nth row aims to achieve vertical focusing of SPPs at (R)n = (0, f + na). (b) Schematic of the LRM setup and QL incorporated with four photodetectors locating at the foci. (c) SEM image of fabricated four-focus QL with a footprint of 25 µm × 25 µm. (d-f) LRM images of the SPP intensity distributions. White arrows represent the polarization direction of the illuminating light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) LRM image of the left focal area enlarged from Fig. 1(d). (b) Corresponding simulation image with t = 0.943 and φ = 0.0148π using the SPP point source model. (c) Normalized experimental (solid lines) and simulated (dotted lines) intensity profiles along the longitudinal (blue lines) and transverse (red lines) directions through the focus.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated SPP intensity patterns when the incident beam is shifted by (a) 0 and (b) 5 µm in the [ + 1, + 1] direction. The incident beam is a linearly polarized Gaussian beam with a 10 μm beam waist. (c) Local intensity of the focal spot F1 versus the incident beam position. (d,e) Calculated χ and ψ versus the beam position. (f,g) Sensitivities versus the beam position for (f) linear and (g) circular polarization. White outlines indicate contours of S = 0.5Smax.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM image of the fabricated eight-focus QL with a footprint of 53 µm × 53 µm. (b-d) LRM images of SPP intensity distributions.White arrows represent the polarization direction of the illuminating light.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a,b) Calculated χ1 and ψ1 versus beam position. (c,d) Calculated χ2 and ψ2 versus beam position. (e) S1 versus beam position for linear polarization. (f) S2 versus beam position (x1, y1) for linear polarization. (g) S1 versus beam position for circular polarization. (h) S2 versus beam position for circular polarization. White outlines indicate contours of S = 0.5Smax.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polynomial fitting coefficients

Equations (6)

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λ SPP 2 ( 2 l + ε ) | L ± f | λ SPP 2 ( 2 l + 1 + ε ) ,
( χ ψ ) = ( ( I 1 + I 4 I 2 I 3 ) / ( I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 ) ( I 1 + I 2 I 3 I 4 ) / ( I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 ) ) ,
( χ , ψ ) = ( u = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 v = 0 , 1 , 2 u + v 3 p u v x 1 u y 1 v , u = 0 , 1 , 2 v = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 u + v 3 q u v x 1 u y 1 v ) ,
λ SPP 2 ( 2 l + ε ) | D k ± ( f n a ) | λ SPP 2 ( 2 l + 1 + ε ) ,
( χ 1 ψ 1 ) = ( ( I 2 + I 8 I 5 I 3 ) / ( I 2 + I 3 + I 5 + I 8 ) ( I 1 + I 6 I 4 I 7 ) / ( I 1 + I 4 + I 6 + I 7 ) )
( χ 2 ψ 2 ) = ( ( I 1 + I 7 I 6 I 4 ) / ( I 1 + I 4 + I 6 + I 7 ) ( I 2 + I 5 I 3 I 8 ) / ( I 2 + I 3 + I 5 + I 8 ) )

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