Abstract

Optical evanescent wave in total internal reflection has been widely used in efficient optical manipulation, where the object is trapped by the intrinsic intensity gradient of the evanescent wave while transported by the scattering force along the orthogonal direction. Here, we propose a distinct optical manipulation scheme using the attenuated modes in subwavelength optical channels, where both the trapping and transportation forces are along the channel direction. We create such a mode in a sub-wavelength photonic crystal waveguide and quantitatively obtain the net pushing and pulling forces, which can overcome the Brownian motion within a critical length. Due to the presence of the physical channel, subwavelength trapping on the transverse direction is natural, and manipulation along bend trajectories is also possible without the assistance of the self-acceleration beams provided a channel is adopted. This optical manipulation method can be extended to any other channels that support attenuation mode, and may provide an alternate way for flexible optical manipulation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kovalev, V. V. Kotlyar, and A. P. Porfirev, “Optical trapping and moving of microparticles by using asymmetrical Laguerre-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2426–2429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

D. Gao, A. Novitsky, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, L. Gao, C. T. Lim, B. Luk’yanchuk, and C.-W. Qiu, “Unveiling the correlation between non-diffracting tractor beam and its singularity in Poynting vector,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 75–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Qiu, W. Ding, M. R. C. Mahdy, D. Gao, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, A. Dogariu, Z. Wang, and C. T. Lim, “Photon momentum transfer in inhomogeneous dielectric mixtures and induced tractor beams,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e278 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, H. Li, D. Gao, L. Gao, J. Xu, and C. W. Qiu, “Radiation pressure of active dispersive chiral slabs,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16546–16553 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Akbarzadeh, J. A. Crosse, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, A. J. Danner, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Interplay of optical force and ray-optic behavior between Luneburg lenses,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1384–1390 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, J. Li, and Z.-Y. Li, “Fano resonance of the ultrasensitve optical force excited by Gaussian evanescent field,” J. Opt. 17(7), 075004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. Liu, A. Woolf, A. W. Rodriguez, and F. Capasso, “Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), E5609–E5615 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Irawati, V. John, M. M. Aeinehvand, F. Ibrahim, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Evanescent wave optical trapping and transport of polystyrene microspheres on microfibers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2630–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Akbarzadeh, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, and A. J. Danner, “Tracing optical force fields within graded-index media,” New J. Phys. 16(5), 053035 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Soltani, J. Lin, R. A. Forties, J. T. Inman, S. N. Saraf, R. M. Fulbright, M. Lipson, and M. D. Wang, “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 448–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Wang, W. Lu, J. Ng, and Z. Lin, “Optimized optical “tractor beam” for core-shell nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2399–2402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

N. Wang, J. Chen, S. Liu, and Z. Lin, “Dynamical and phase-diagram study on stable optical pulling force in Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063812 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Kajorndejnukul, W. Ding, S. Sukhov, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Dogariu, “Linear momentum increase and negative optical forces at dielectric interface,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 787–790 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stellmer, B. Pasquiou, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, “Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Dogariu, S. Sukhov, and J. J. Sáenz, “Optically induced ‘negative forces’,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 24–27 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Novitsky, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Material-independent and size-independent tractor beams for dipole objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 023902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Ruffner and D. G. Grier, “Optical conveyors: a class of active tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 163903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

B. H. Liu, L. J. Yang, Y. Wang, and J. L. Yuan, “Nano-manipulation performance with enhanced evanescent field close to near-field optical probes,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3039–3046 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. J. Webb and Shivanand, “Negative electromagnetic plane-wave force in gain media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 057602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sukhov and A. Dogariu, “Negative nonconservative forces: optical “tractor beams” for arbitrary objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Salandrino and D. N. Christodoulides, “Reverse optical forces in negative index dielectric waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3103–3105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Daria, D. Z. Palima, and J. Glückstad, “Optical twists in phase and amplitude,” Opt. Express 19(2), 476–481 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novitsky, C.-W. Qiu, and H. Wang, “Single gradientless light beam drags particles as tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Ng, Z. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Optical pulling force,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 531–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, T. P. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. S. Varghese and M. Gu, “Optical micromanipulations in the non-diffractive regime,” J. Biophotonics 3(4), 207–215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sukhov and A. Dogariu, “On the concept of “tractor beams”,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3847–3849 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

V. Ruiz-Cortés and J. P. Vite-Frías, “Lensless optical manipulation with an evanescent field,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6600–6608 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, “Surface delivery of a single nanoparticle under moving evanescent standing-wave illumination,” New J. Phys. 10(11), 113010 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 491–505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1–2), 157–165 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. Ganic, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Trapping force and optical lifting under focused evanescent wave illumination,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5533–5538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, J.-B. Haumonte, Y. Micheau, J. W. M. Chon, and X. Gan, “Laser trapping and manipulation under focused evanescent wave illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4236 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun. 108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[Crossref]

Aeinehvand, M. M.

N. Irawati, V. John, M. M. Aeinehvand, F. Ibrahim, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Evanescent wave optical trapping and transport of polystyrene microspheres on microfibers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2630–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

N. Irawati, V. John, M. M. Aeinehvand, F. Ibrahim, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Evanescent wave optical trapping and transport of polystyrene microspheres on microfibers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2630–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akbarzadeh, A.

A. Akbarzadeh, J. A. Crosse, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, A. J. Danner, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Interplay of optical force and ray-optic behavior between Luneburg lenses,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1384–1390 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Akbarzadeh, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, and A. J. Danner, “Tracing optical force fields within graded-index media,” New J. Phys. 16(5), 053035 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. P.

J. Chan, T. P. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

Aspelmeyer, M.

J. Chan, T. P. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartl, J.

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Brzobohatý, O.

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

L. Liu, A. Woolf, A. W. Rodriguez, and F. Capasso, “Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), E5609–E5615 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

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Saraf, S. N.

M. Soltani, J. Lin, R. A. Forties, J. T. Inman, S. N. Saraf, R. M. Fulbright, M. Lipson, and M. D. Wang, “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 448–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreck, F.

S. Stellmer, B. Pasquiou, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, “Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Šerý, M.

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1–2), 157–165 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shivanand,

K. J. Webb and Shivanand, “Negative electromagnetic plane-wave force in gain media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 057602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Šiler, M.

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, “Surface delivery of a single nanoparticle under moving evanescent standing-wave illumination,” New J. Phys. 10(11), 113010 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1–2), 157–165 (2006).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

M. Soltani, J. Lin, R. A. Forties, J. T. Inman, S. N. Saraf, R. M. Fulbright, M. Lipson, and M. D. Wang, “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 448–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

A. Akbarzadeh, J. A. Crosse, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, A. J. Danner, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Interplay of optical force and ray-optic behavior between Luneburg lenses,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1384–1390 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stellmer, S.

S. Stellmer, B. Pasquiou, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, “Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Sukhov, S.

V. Kajorndejnukul, W. Ding, S. Sukhov, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Dogariu, “Linear momentum increase and negative optical forces at dielectric interface,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 787–790 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Dogariu, S. Sukhov, and J. J. Sáenz, “Optically induced ‘negative forces’,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 24–27 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sukhov and A. Dogariu, “Negative nonconservative forces: optical “tractor beams” for arbitrary objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sukhov and A. Dogariu, “On the concept of “tractor beams”,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3847–3849 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, S. S.

S. S. Varghese and M. Gu, “Optical micromanipulations in the non-diffractive regime,” J. Biophotonics 3(4), 207–215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vite-Frías, J. P.

Wang, H.

A. Novitsky, C.-W. Qiu, and H. Wang, “Single gradientless light beam drags particles as tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

Wang, M. D.

M. Soltani, J. Lin, R. A. Forties, J. T. Inman, S. N. Saraf, R. M. Fulbright, M. Lipson, and M. D. Wang, “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 448–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

N. Wang, W. Lu, J. Ng, and Z. Lin, “Optimized optical “tractor beam” for core-shell nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2399–2402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Wang, J. Chen, S. Liu, and Z. Lin, “Dynamical and phase-diagram study on stable optical pulling force in Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063812 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

B. H. Liu, L. J. Yang, Y. Wang, and J. L. Yuan, “Nano-manipulation performance with enhanced evanescent field close to near-field optical probes,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3039–3046 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C.-W. Qiu, W. Ding, M. R. C. Mahdy, D. Gao, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, A. Dogariu, Z. Wang, and C. T. Lim, “Photon momentum transfer in inhomogeneous dielectric mixtures and induced tractor beams,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webb, K. J.

K. J. Webb and Shivanand, “Negative electromagnetic plane-wave force in gain media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 057602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Woolf, A.

L. Liu, A. Woolf, A. W. Rodriguez, and F. Capasso, “Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), E5609–E5615 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yang, L. J.

B. H. Liu, L. J. Yang, Y. Wang, and J. L. Yuan, “Nano-manipulation performance with enhanced evanescent field close to near-field optical probes,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3039–3046 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, J. Li, and Z.-Y. Li, “Fano resonance of the ultrasensitve optical force excited by Gaussian evanescent field,” J. Opt. 17(7), 075004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J. L.

B. H. Liu, L. J. Yang, Y. Wang, and J. L. Yuan, “Nano-manipulation performance with enhanced evanescent field close to near-field optical probes,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3039–3046 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zemánek, P.

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, “Surface delivery of a single nanoparticle under moving evanescent standing-wave illumination,” New J. Phys. 10(11), 113010 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1–2), 157–165 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

C.-W. Qiu, W. Ding, M. R. C. Mahdy, D. Gao, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, A. Dogariu, Z. Wang, and C. T. Lim, “Photon momentum transfer in inhomogeneous dielectric mixtures and induced tractor beams,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e278 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Gao, A. Novitsky, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, L. Gao, C. T. Lim, B. Luk’yanchuk, and C.-W. Qiu, “Unveiling the correlation between non-diffracting tractor beam and its singularity in Poynting vector,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 75–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. Akbarzadeh, J. A. Crosse, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, A. J. Danner, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Interplay of optical force and ray-optic behavior between Luneburg lenses,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1384–1390 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1–2), 157–165 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Gu, J.-B. Haumonte, Y. Micheau, J. W. M. Chon, and X. Gan, “Laser trapping and manipulation under focused evanescent wave illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4236 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

S. S. Varghese and M. Gu, “Optical micromanipulations in the non-diffractive regime,” J. Biophotonics 3(4), 207–215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

Y. Yang, J. Li, and Z.-Y. Li, “Fano resonance of the ultrasensitve optical force excited by Gaussian evanescent field,” J. Opt. 17(7), 075004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Gao, A. Novitsky, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, L. Gao, C. T. Lim, B. Luk’yanchuk, and C.-W. Qiu, “Unveiling the correlation between non-diffracting tractor beam and its singularity in Poynting vector,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 75–82 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C.-W. Qiu, W. Ding, M. R. C. Mahdy, D. Gao, T. Zhang, F. C. Cheong, A. Dogariu, Z. Wang, and C. T. Lim, “Photon momentum transfer in inhomogeneous dielectric mixtures and induced tractor beams,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Irawati, V. John, M. M. Aeinehvand, F. Ibrahim, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Evanescent wave optical trapping and transport of polystyrene microspheres on microfibers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2630–2634 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
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Nat. Methods (1)

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 491–505 (2008).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

M. Soltani, J. Lin, R. A. Forties, J. T. Inman, S. N. Saraf, R. M. Fulbright, M. Lipson, and M. D. Wang, “Nanophotonic trapping for precise manipulation of biomolecular arrays,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 448–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (6)

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, J. Ng, Z. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Optical pulling force,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 531–534 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dogariu, S. Sukhov, and J. J. Sáenz, “Optically induced ‘negative forces’,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 24–27 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Baumgartl, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optically mediated particle clearing using Airy wavepackets,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 675–678 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Brzobohatý, V. Karásek, M. Šiler, L. Chvátal, T. Čižmár, and P. Zemánek, “Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a ‘tractor beam’,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 123–127 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Kajorndejnukul, W. Ding, S. Sukhov, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Dogariu, “Linear momentum increase and negative optical forces at dielectric interface,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 787–790 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
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New J. Phys. (2)

A. Akbarzadeh, M. Danesh, C.-W. Qiu, and A. J. Danner, “Tracing optical force fields within graded-index media,” New J. Phys. 16(5), 053035 (2014).
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M. Šiler, T. Čižmár, A. Jonáš, and P. Zemánek, “Surface delivery of a single nanoparticle under moving evanescent standing-wave illumination,” New J. Phys. 10(11), 113010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

B. H. Liu, L. J. Yang, Y. Wang, and J. L. Yuan, “Nano-manipulation performance with enhanced evanescent field close to near-field optical probes,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3039–3046 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Wang, J. Chen, S. Liu, and Z. Lin, “Dynamical and phase-diagram study on stable optical pulling force in Bessel beams,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063812 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

K. J. Webb and Shivanand, “Negative electromagnetic plane-wave force in gain media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 057602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Sukhov and A. Dogariu, “Negative nonconservative forces: optical “tractor beams” for arbitrary objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Ruffner and D. G. Grier, “Optical conveyors: a class of active tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 163903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novitsky, C.-W. Qiu, and H. Wang, “Single gradientless light beam drags particles as tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novitsky, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Lavrinenko, “Material-independent and size-independent tractor beams for dipole objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 023902 (2012).
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S. Stellmer, B. Pasquiou, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, “Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(26), 263003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

L. Liu, A. Woolf, A. W. Rodriguez, and F. Capasso, “Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), E5609–E5615 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of electromagnetic force in evanescent modes. (a) Traditional configuration where the gradient force and scattering force are perpendicular to each other. (b) Our new configuration with collinear gradient force and scattering force, which can be regarded as the combination of traditional evanescent mode manipulation and optical tractor beam.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Structure and the evanescent mode. (a) Schematic of the photonic crystal (PC) waveguide channel, which supports attenuation propagating mode. The parameters are na = 3.56 and nb = 1.33. (b) Band structure of TM mode (nonzero component of Hx,y and Ez) of the PC channel. The blue dashed curve (upper left curve) shows the guiding mode of the waveguide, and the red solid (lower right) curve is the band edge of the PC. The shaded region between those two curves is the band of attenuation propagation modes with complex propagation constant. The upper right inset shows the field pattern of |Ez| at the frequency ω 1 with a smaller damping rate, and the lower left inset shows the mode of ω 2 with a larger damping rate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical forces change with x for different modes. The radius and refractive index of the object are r=0.2a and n o =1.5 . (b) Optical force changes with the refractive index and size of the object at the fixed frequency of ω=0.2258 . The regions I (III) means Fx is always pulling (pushing) at any positions of x, while the middle region II means Fx maybe pushing or pulling dependent on the position.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical manipulation through a bend channel with bending radius of (a) R = 16a, and (b) R = 12a. The gray open circles show the position of the photonic crystal and red color shows the field pattern of the mode. The blue thick curves with arrows show the motion trajectory of a dipole object driven by the optical force.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The manipulation factor C(x) changes with position at the incident level of 10mW.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E z ( x,y,z )= E z0 ( y,z ) e iβx = E z0 ( y,z ) e iαxγx .
F grad = 2πA c n 1 2 I( x,y,z )   with   A= n 1 2 ( m 2 1 m 2 +2 ) r 3 .
F grad,x = 2πA c n 1 2 x I( x,y,z )= 4πγ r 3 c ( m 2 1 m 2 +2 )I( x,y,z ).
F scat,x = 8π n 1 α 4 r 6 3c ( m 2 1 m 2 +2 ) 2 I( x,y,z ).
F tot,x = 4π r 3 c ( 2 n 1 α 4 r 3 3 m 2 1 m 2 +2 γ )( m 2 1 m 2 +2 )I( x,y,z ).
F= S T n ^ ds    with    T = 1 2 Re[ D E * +H B * 1 2 I (E D * +H B * ) ].

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