Abstract

Even absorptive defects or inner cracks hiding several micrometers to a few dozen micrometers beneath the top surface can induce damage to transmission elements in the ultraviolet band. The extremely small size and disordered state of such defects or cracks hinder their detection using conventional methods. Therefore, the diagnosis of factors that limit damage resistance performance is a key technique for improving the fabrication technology of optical elements. With a focus on laser damage to third-harmonic transmission elements, this study establishes a micron space-resolved and nanosecond time-resolved imaging system on the basis of the pump-probe detection technique. The changes in the properties of defect-induced laser damage in the time domain are clarified. A diagnostic method for original damage depth in micron precision is proposed according to damage behaviors. This method can retrieve initial information on damage inducement and depth position. The recognition and diagnostic capabilities of such a technique are calibrated with artificial samples and then used to analyze real samples.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Transient features and growth behavior of artificial cracks during the initial damage period

Bin Ma, Ke Wang, Menglei Lu, Li Zhang, Lei Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Xinbin Cheng, and Zhanshan Wang
Appl. Opt. 56(4) C123-C130 (2017)

Real-time damage event imaging reveals the absorber inducing laser damage with low density in solgel antireflective coatings

Guohang Hu, Yuanan Zhao, Jianda Shao, Kui Yi, Dawei Li, Xiaofeng Liu, and Qiling Xiao
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(5) 1186-1193 (2013)

Research on laser induced damage in PLZT electro-optical transparent ceramic

Xuejiao Zhang, Qing Ye, Ronghui Qu, Haiwen Cai, and Fang Wei
Opt. Mater. Express 6(3) 952-960 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Bercegol and P. Grua, “Fracture related initiation and growth of surface laser damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321B (2008).
  5. J. Wang, R. Maier, P. G. Dewa, H. Schreiber, R. A. Bellman, and D. D. Elli, “Nanoporous structure of a GdF(3) thin film evaluated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3221–3226 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, D. A. Cross, and C. W. Carr, “Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19966–19976 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Testing asymmetry in plasma-ball growth seeded by a nanoscale absorbing defect embedded in a SiO2 thin-film matrix subjected to UV pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063101 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. A. Negres, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Dynamics of material modifications following laser-breakdown in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10642–10649 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. N. Raman, S. Elhadj, R. A. Negres, M. J. Matthews, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Characterization of ejected fused silica particles following surface breakdown with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27708–27724 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. Bercegol and P. Grua, “Fracture related initiation and growth of surface laser damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321B (2008).

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Testing asymmetry in plasma-ball growth seeded by a nanoscale absorbing defect embedded in a SiO2 thin-film matrix subjected to UV pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ambard, C.

Baxamusa, S.

Bellman, R. A.

Bercegol, H.

H. Bercegol and P. Grua, “Fracture related initiation and growth of surface laser damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321B (2008).

Bittle, W.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bude, J.

Bude, J. D.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, D. A. Cross, and C. W. Carr, “Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19966–19976 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, W.

Chase, L. L.

Cormont, P.

Cross, D.

Cross, D. A.

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, S. Elhadj, R. A. Negres, M. J. Matthews, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Characterization of ejected fused silica particles following surface breakdown with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27708–27724 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Dynamics of material modifications following laser-breakdown in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10642–10649 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Destribats, J.

Dewa, P. G.

Elhadj, S.

Elli, D. D.

Feit, M. D.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, S. Elhadj, R. A. Negres, M. J. Matthews, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Characterization of ejected fused silica particles following surface breakdown with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27708–27724 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Dynamics of material modifications following laser-breakdown in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10642–10649 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fournier, D.

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Génin, F. Y.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grua, P.

H. Bercegol and P. Grua, “Fracture related initiation and growth of surface laser damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321B (2008).

Jeanloz, R.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupinski, P.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laurence, T.

Laurence, T. A.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Legros, P.

Li, B. C.

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lounis, B.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, R.

Manes, K. R.

Martin, M. C.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. J.

Menapace, J.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miller, P.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monticelli, M.

Neauport, J.

Negres, R. A.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, S. Elhadj, R. A. Negres, M. J. Matthews, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Characterization of ejected fused silica particles following surface breakdown with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27708–27724 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. A. Negres, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Dynamics of material modifications following laser-breakdown in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10642–10649 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, D. A. Cross, and C. W. Carr, “Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19966–19976 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, M. A.

Oliver, J. B.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Orrit, M.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panero, W. R.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papernov, S.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Testing asymmetry in plasma-ball growth seeded by a nanoscale absorbing defect embedded in a SiO2 thin-film matrix subjected to UV pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063101 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pistor, T. V.

Pottier, L.

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Radousky, H. B.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raman, R. N.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, S. Elhadj, R. A. Negres, M. J. Matthews, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Characterization of ejected fused silica particles following surface breakdown with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27708–27724 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roger, J. P.

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, M. D. Feit, K. R. Manes, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Relaxation dynamics of nanosecond laser superheated material in dielectrics,” Optica 2(8), 765–772 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salleo, A.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607–2616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sands, T.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, A. W.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Testing asymmetry in plasma-ball growth seeded by a nanoscale absorbing defect embedded in a SiO2 thin-film matrix subjected to UV pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063101 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, H.

Shen, N.

Steele, R.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Steele, W.

Steele, W. A.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tait, A.

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tamarat, P.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, S. T.

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmer, D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Welsch, E.

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wong, L.

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Kinetics of ejected particles during breakdown in fused silica by nanosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051901 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Testing asymmetry in plasma-ball growth seeded by a nanoscale absorbing defect embedded in a SiO2 thin-film matrix subjected to UV pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063101 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov, A. Tait, W. Bittle, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, and P. Kupinski, “Near-ultraviolet absorption and nanosecond-pulse-laser damage in HfO2 monolayers studied by submicrometer-resolution photothermal heterodyne imaging and atomic force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113106 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52–54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. G. Demos, R. A. Negres, R. N. Raman, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Feit, “Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 444–452 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Salleo, S. T. Taylor, M. C. Martin, W. R. Panero, R. Jeanloz, T. Sands, and F. Y. Génin, “Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 796–800 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Time-resolved microscope system to image material response following localized laser energy deposition: exit surface damage in fused silica as a case example,” Opt. Eng. 50(1), 013602 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Bercegol and P. Grua, “Fracture related initiation and growth of surface laser damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321B (2008).

J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, W. A. Steele, L. L. Wong, T. I. Suratwala, and P. E. Miller, “MRF applications: measurement of process-dependent subsurface damage in optical materials using the MRF wedge technique,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. C. Li, L. Pottier, J. P. Roger, D. Fournier, and E. Welsch, “Thermal characterization of film-on-substrate systems with modulated thermoreflectance microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 2154–2160 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the pump probe image system and the experimental conditions. (a) All the time-resolved images are captured from side by CCD 2; P polarized light is used; M1 and M2, mirrors for different wavelength; PBS, polarized beam splitter; (b) The laser are always irradiates from the left side, and the right part of air are usually omitted; (c) Projected profiles of different damage sites implys the prolate shape is prefered.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side-view transient images of the damage pit and temporal evolution of the damage process generated at 95 J/cm2. The diameter of the final pit is 34 μm, and the depth is approximately 11 μm. This series of images is combined at different positions with similar and analogous damage features instead of employing the same process because the imaging system can only capture images once with one probe laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relationship between laser fluence and crack generation time. (a) Onset of cracks. According to the statistics, cracks are mainly generated between 0 and 2.5 ns delay. (b) Probability of crack formation. With the increase in laser irradiation energy, the generation probability of crack is increased. (c) Typical morphologies of cracks generated within 65–130 J/cm2 show the transient features of crack direction, length, and number around each pit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transient properties of absorptive defects with different depths under low-energy laser irradiation with a prolate laser spot. The transient and final depth of delamination values are (a) 1.1 and 1.8 μm for the substrate coated with 10 nm Hf and 1 μm SiO2; (b) 2.1 and 2.3 μm for the substrate coated with 10 nm Hf and 2 μm SiO2; (c) 4.1 and 4.6 μm for the substrate coated with 10 nm Hf and 4 μm SiO2; and (d) 8.1 and 8.8 μm for the substrate coated with 10 nm Hf and 8 μm SiO2, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Frontal damage morphology of absorptive defects with different depths under laser irradiation of 15 J/cm2 with prolate laser spot. (a), (b), (c), and (d) represent the substrates coated with the same thickness of the Hf layer (10 nm) and different thicknesses of the SiO2 layer. The final morphologies verify that the depths of delamination correspond to SiO2 thickness.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transient properties of absorptive defects with different depths under laser irradiation of 55 J/cm2. (a), (b), (c), and (d) represent the substrates coated with the same thickness of the Hf layer (10 nm) and different thicknesses of the SiO2 layer. The transient depths of the four types of samples are 1.2, 2.3, 4.5, and 8.6 μm, respectively, which correspond to the depths of the Hf film. The damage source and position cannot be deduced from the final depth and irregular damage morphology.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Relationships among transient and final properties, laser energy, and absorptive defect depth. A relative energy of 1 equates to a damage probability of 60% at 55 J/cm2, and a relative energy of 1.2 equates to a damage probability of 100% at 66 J/cm2. The delay time of the probe laser relative to the pump laser is −1.5 ns. (a) shows the transient depth and width, final depth and width of sample with Hf film at 1 μm depth under different energy; (b) and (c) present the invariant transient depth and incremental trends of final width along with the increase in energy, respectively; (d) gives the linear fitting result of the final width and depth, Y = 2.6X + 12.9, several irregular data points of 2 μm sample are ignored.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Damage properties of normal samples. A relative energy of 1 equates to a damage probability of 60% at 95 J/cm2, and a relative energy of 1.3 equates to a damage probability of 100% at ~125 J/cm2. The hollow symbols are the results at 0 and 20 ns time delay. The magenta and red stars refer to the values obtained above or below the relative energy of 1.5, respectively. (a) shows the transient depth and width, final depth and width of normal sample at −1.5 ns delay under different energy; (b) and (c) present the transient centers at −1.5, 0 and 20 ns varying with laser energy and final width, respectively; (d) gives the linear fitting result of the final width and depth, Y = 4.6X-9.2.

Metrics