Abstract

We report, for the first time, on the design and experimental demonstration of fiber-chip surface grating couplers based on subwavelength grating engineered nanostructure operating in the low fiber chromatic dispersion window (around 1.3 μm wavelengths), which is of great interest for short-reach data communication applications. Our coupler designs meet the minimum feature size requirements of large-volume deep-ultraviolet stepper lithography processes. The fiber-chip couplers are implemented in a standard 220-nm-thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform and are fabricated by using a single etch process. Several types of couplers are presented, specifically the uniform, the apodized, and the focusing designs. The measured peak coupling efficiency is −2.5 dB (56%) near the central wavelength of 1.3 μm. In addition, by utilizing the technique of the backside substrate metallization underneath the grating couplers, the coupling efficiency of up to −0.5 dB (89%) is predicted by Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (6)

S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bozzola, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimising apodized grating couplers in a pure SOI platform to -0.5 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16289–16304 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with -0.58 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, Ch. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-Ch. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the -1dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Na, H. Frish, I.-W. Hsieh, O. Harel, R. George, A. Barkai, and H. Rong, “Efficient broadband silicon-on-insulator grating coupler with low backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2101–2103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. 2, 466–475 (1956).

Absil, P.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andreani, L. C.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R. G.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakir, B. B.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Beahr-Jones, T.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bedard, D.

Benedikovic, D.

Bernabé, S.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berroth, M.

Bienstman, P.

Bock, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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De Dobbelaere, P.

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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Duan, N.

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Fang, Q.

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Fung, C. K.

Fung, Ch. K. Y.

X. Chen, Ch. Li, Ch. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
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Gerace, D.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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Guan, H.

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Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
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R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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Hochberg, M.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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Janz, S.

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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Keyvaninia, S.

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Kley, E.-B.

Kopp, Ch.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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Kunze, A.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Laval, S.

Lepage, G.

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

Li, Ch.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, Ch. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-Ch. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Ch. Li, Ch. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
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Li, L.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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Li, Y.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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Lim, A. E.-J.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, Ch. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-Ch. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
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Liow, T.-Y.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, Ch. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-Ch. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
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Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Marzban, B.

S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
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S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
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Molina-Fernández, I.

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
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R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
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L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
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Painchaud, Y.

Pascal, D.

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Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Schrank, F.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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Selvaraja, S. K.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
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R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
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R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
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T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

Vogel, W.

Waldhäusl, R.

Wang, S.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witzens, J.

S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Yu, J.-Z.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-D.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.-J.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, F.

Zimmermann, L.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (6)

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic iIntegration platform - Have we found the sweet spot?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, Ch. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-Ch. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A. E.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40 Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Romero-García, B. Shen, F. Merget, B. Marzban, and J. Witzens, “Alignment tolerant couplers for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 8200214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

X. Chen, Ch. Li, Ch. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized Waveguide Grating Couplers for Efficient Coupling to Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Beahr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
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Opt. Express (7)

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
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L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the -1dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bozzola, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimising apodized grating couplers in a pure SOI platform to -0.5 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16289–16304 (2015).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (11)

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, R. Halir, J. de Oliva-Rubio, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, N. Kim, and B. Lamontagne, “Single-etch grating coupler for micrometric silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2647–2649 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
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Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with -0.58 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
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N. Na, H. Frish, I.-W. Hsieh, O. Harel, R. George, A. Barkai, and H. Rong, “Efficient broadband silicon-on-insulator grating coupler with low backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2101–2103 (2011).
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X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
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S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Visible wavelength silicon nitride focusing grating coupler with AlCu/TiN reflector,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2521–2523 (2013).
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D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and M. Dado, “High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4190–4193 (2015).
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R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12–13), 521–526 (2012).
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Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
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C. Baudot, D. Dutartre, A. Souhaité, N. Vulliet, A. Jones, M. Ries, A. Mekis, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, Y. Chi, S. Cremer, O. Gourhant, D. Benoit, G. Courgoulet, C. Perrot, L. Broussous, T. Pinguet, J. Siniviant, and F. Boeuf, “Low Cost 300 mm double-SOI substrate for low insertion loss 1D & 2D grating couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE 11th International on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 137–138.

M. Fan, M. A. Popović, and F. X. Kartner, “High directivity, vertical fiber-to-chip coupler with anisotropically radiating grating teeth,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of an SWG index engineered surface grating coupler. (a) Vertical cross-section and (b) in-plane view. (c) Calculated SWG effective material index as a function of air gap widths for different SWG periods.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Calculated grating directionality as a function of BOX thickness for two specific coupling angles (10° and 33°). (b) The grating directionality as a function of wavelength for different coupling angles.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and the continuously apodized grating couplers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated coupling efficiency of the two-step apodized coupler, for different numbers of periods in the first coupler section with the SWG index of nSWG = 2.85 and different SWG indexes in the second grating section of 24 periods. (b) Calculated coupling efficiency of the continuously apodized coupler as a function of number of periods in the first (apodized) section, for different SWG indexes in the second (unapodized) section of 22 periods. The first (apodized) section starts with an effective medium index of nSWG = 2.85.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated grating performance as a function of wavelength for the continuously apodized coupler, for different critical dimensions (minimum feature sizes) of 100 nm, 120 nm, and 150 nm of the SWG nanostructure. (a) Grating directionality, (b) field overlap integral, (c) reflectivity, and (d) coupling efficiency.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and the continuously apodized grating couplers with a linearly tapered access waveguide. (b) SEM image of the grating coupler. Detail views of the fabricated structures: (c) uniform, (d) two-step apodized, and (e) continuously apodized grating couplers.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and the continuously apodized focusing grating couplers with a non-adiabatic access waveguide. (b) SEM image of the coupler. Detail view of the fabricated structures: (c) uniform, (d) two-step apodized, and (e) continuously apodized focusing grating couplers.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Measured coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and continuously apodized focusing grating couplers with a free-space region. (b) SEM image of the coupler. Detail view of fabricated structures: (c) uniform, (d) two-step apodized, and (e) continuously apodized grating couplers.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated and measured coupling effiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and the continuously apodized grating couplers. Here, the simulation results include the influence of 40 nm fabrication bias, as determined by the SEM inspection.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated coupling effiency as a function of wavelength for the uniform, the two-step apodized, and the continuously apodized grating couplers with a bottom metal mirror. Inset: Cross-section schematics (vertical cut) of the surface grating coupler with a bottom metal mirror.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal design parameters for the two-step apodized grating coupler. See Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) for parameters definition.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nominal design parameters for the continuously apodized grating coupler. See Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) for parameters definition.

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