Abstract

We report on Q-switched waveguide lasers on the graphene-based crystalline Y-branch platform. By applying direct femtosecond laser writing of Nd:YAG laser crystal, a surface waveguide splitter with Y-branch geometry has been fabricated with depressed cladding configuration. The Q-switched lasing operation at 1064 nm is achieved in transmission mode, by attaching a two-layer graphene on the resonator output mirror, as well as by using interaction between the evanescent field and a few-layer graphene that was positioned right above the Y-type waveguide. Q-switched laser with a maximum average power of 173 mW, pulse energy and duration of 63 nJ and 90 ns is obtained. This work opens a way for laser-written crystalline devices as compact, direct-pump laser sources for diverse applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  12. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
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  15. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).
  23. H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

2014 (8)

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. J. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. G. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13516–13525 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1995 (1)

J. C. Cartledge, “Performance of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems based on lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulators with asymmetric Y-branch waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1090–1092 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

E. K. Mwarania and J. S. Wilkinson, “Modeling of Y-junction waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1700–1707 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Amin, J.

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Büchter, D.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cartledge, J. C.

J. C. Cartledge, “Performance of 10 Gb/s lightwave systems based on lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulators with asymmetric Y-branch waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1090–1092 (1995).
[Crossref]

Castillo, G. R.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, D.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Demetriou, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Dubey, M.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrai, A. C.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grundkötter, W.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, R.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hempstead, M.

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hickernell, R. K.

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jipa, F.

Kar, A. K.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kinrot, N.

Kundys, D.

Larson, D. R.

Lim, C.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, J.

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, J. R.

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[Crossref]

Malone, K. J.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mary, R.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Min, Y.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. M.

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mwarania, E. K.

E. K. Mwarania and J. S. Wilkinson, “Modeling of Y-junction waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1700–1707 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nathan, M.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nouroozi, R.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlov, S.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pavel, N.

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Quiring, V.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rabes, B. R.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramasubramaniam, A.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Reza, S.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ricken, R.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Román, J. E.

Salamu, G.

Sanford, N. A.

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. J.

Smith, P. G.

Sohler, W.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suche, H.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomas-Peter, N.

Torrisi, F.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vannahme, C.

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
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E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. K. Mwarania and J. S. Wilkinson, “Modeling of Y-junction waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1700–1707 (1992).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamfirescu, M.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, S.

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Yu, X. Chen, H. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Hu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, S. Zhuang, and M. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Tan, R. He, J. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, and F. Chen, “Q-switched Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser through evanescent field interaction with surface coated graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101111 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrai, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8 GHz graphene-based 2 μm monolithic waveguide laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602106 (2015).

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. K. Mwarania, D. M. Murphy, M. Hempstead, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Integrated Q-switched multiple-cavity glass waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(3), 235–237 (1992).
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[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (3)

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 827–846 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

W. Sohler, H. Hu, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, C. Vannahme, H. Herrmann, D. Büchter, S. Reza, W. Grundkötter, S. Orlov, H. Suche, R. Nouroozi, and Y. Min, “Integrated optical devices in lithium niobate,” Opt. Photon. News 19(1), 24–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Jia, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. R. Castillo, B. R. Rabes, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5988 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of Q-switched waveguide laser measurement: (a) bilayer graphene coated on the quartz is adhered to the output face and (b) multilayer graphene coated on the surface of the Y-branch waveguide; (c) schematic diagram of the Y-branch rectangle cladding waveguide and the inset microscope images are the input and the output face of the cladding waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured intensity distributions of the1064-nm waveguide laser at (a) p and (b) s polarization when the bilayer graphene deposited on the quartz is used; and at (c) p and (d) s polarization corresponding to the multilayer graphene deposited on the surface of the waveguide. All-angle light transmission along the transverse plane at 1064 nm in the free-generation and Q-switched regimes with using the (e) bilayer graphene and (f) multilayer graphene.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The features of the pulsed laser at s polarization ((a) repetition rate, (b) pulse duration and pulse energy) as functions of the launched power with using the bilayer graphene; the features of the pulsed laser ((c) repetition rate, (d) pulse duration and pulse energy) as functions of the launched power with using the multilayer graphene.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pulse trains of the Q-switched waveguide laser obtained with bilayer graphene as SA on the output face when the input power are (a) 1.0 and (b) 0.82 W, respectively; pulse trains of the Q-switched waveguide laser obtained with multilayer graphene as SA on the surface of the waveguide when the input power are (c) 1.0 and (d) 0.82 W, respectively.

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