Abstract

Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) is widely exploited for the transmission of broadband, modulated signals used in data links, but not yet in coherent optical links for frequency metrology, where the requirements are rather different. After preliminary tests on fiber spools, in this paper we deeper investigate Raman amplification on deployed in-field optical metrological links. We actually test a Doppler-stabilized optical link both on a 94 km-long metro-network implementation with multiplexed ITU data channels and on a 180 km-long dedicated fiber haul connecting two cities, where DRA is employed in combination with Erbium-doped fiber amplification (EDFA). The performance of DRA is detailed in both experiments, indicating that it does not introduce noticeable penalties for the metrological signal or for the ITU data channels. We hence show that Raman amplification of metrological signals can be compatible with a wavelength division multiplexing architecture and that it can be used as an alternative or in combination with dedicated bidirectional EDFAs. No deterioration is noticed in the coherence properties of the delivered signal, which attains frequency instability at the 10−19 level in both cases. This study can be of interest also in view of the undergoing deployment of continental fiber networks for frequency metrology.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2014 (7)

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Grosche, “Eavesdropping time and frequency: phase noise cancellation along a time-varying path, such as an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2545–2548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level,” Nature 506(7486), 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, K. G. H. Baldwin, M. J. Wouters, A. N. Luiten, G. Aben, and R. B. Warrington, “Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18754–18764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sliwczynski and J. Kołodziej, “Bidirectional optical amplification in long-distance two-way fiber-optic time and frequency transfer systems,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62(1), 253–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. B. Warrington, G. Aben, and A. N. Luiten, “High-precision optical-frequency dissemination on branching optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2893–2896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329(5999), 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement o the instability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. On Ultrason., Ferroel., Freq. Contr. 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy: maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Aben, G.

Abgrall, M.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amemiya, M.

Amy-Klein, A.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Shelkovnikov, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of a SF6 two-photon line by use of a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3320–3322 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argence, B.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Auguste, F.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Bartalini, S.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertacco, E.

Bertacco, E. K.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bishof, M.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level,” Nature 506(7486), 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B. J.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level,” Nature 506(7486), 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolognini, G.

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bromley, S. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level,” Nature 506(7486), 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buczek, L.

L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Calosso, C. E.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, S. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level,” Nature 506(7486), 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancio, P.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cappelli, F.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castrillo, A.

Chanteau, B.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
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A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Shelkovnikov, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of a SF6 two-photon line by use of a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3320–3322 (2005).
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Chardonnet, Ch.

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiuchiarelli, A.

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329(5999), 1630–1633 (2010).
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Cliche, J. F.

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radioastronomy: maintaining femtosecond synchronization in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
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Clivati, C.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costanzo, G. A.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Czubla, A.

L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Darquie, B.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Das, M.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015), doi:.
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Daussy, C.

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement o the instability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. On Ultrason., Ferroel., Freq. Contr. 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
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De Natale, P.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Pasquale, F.

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
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K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebenhag, S.-C.

S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
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Emardson, R.

S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
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Falconi, F.

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faralli, S.

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, A. Chiuchiarelli, F. Falconi, and F. Di Pasquale, “High-power and low-RIN lasers for advanced first- and higher-order Raman co-pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y. Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frittelli, M.

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16498–16507 (2011).
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M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
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Fujii, Y.

Galzerano, G.

Gambetta, A.

Gao, C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gatti, D.

Gianfrani, L.

Gill, P.

Giusfredi, G.

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Godone, A.

C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A.

Gozzard, D.

Grosche, G.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, “Eavesdropping time and frequency: phase noise cancellation along a time-varying path, such as an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2545–2548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guellati-Khelifa, S.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guinet, M.

Haboucha, A.

Hachisu, H.

Hall, J. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
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S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
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A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
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S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
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L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
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M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16498–16507 (2011).
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B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
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Legero, Th.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
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C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
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C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
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C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
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L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
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A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
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O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
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O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
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A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Shelkovnikov, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of a SF6 two-photon line by use of a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3320–3322 (2005).
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S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
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Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
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C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
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F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
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M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
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C. E. Calosso, E. K. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, S. Micalizio, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Doppler-stabilized fiber link with 6 dB noise improvement below the classical limit,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 131–134 (2015).
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C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10-19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(12), 2582–2587 (2011).
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Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16498–16507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
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Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
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A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
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Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
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Poli, N.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P.-E.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Predehl, K.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
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K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

G. Marra, R. Slavik, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and P. Gill, “High resolution microwave frequency transfer over a 86 km long optical fiber network using an optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 511–513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. Wu, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Stability characterization of an optical injection phase locked loop for optical frequency transfer applications,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, June 8–13 2014.
[Crossref]

Rieck, C.

S.-C. Ebenhag, P. O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, and P. Lothberg, “Measurements and error sources in time transfer using asynchronous fiber network,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(7), 1918–1924 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329(5999), 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Schnatz, H.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Shillue, B.

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M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

G. Marra, R. Slavik, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and P. Gill, “High resolution microwave frequency transfer over a 86 km long optical fiber network using an optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 511–513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. Wu, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Stability characterization of an optical injection phase locked loop for optical frequency transfer applications,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, June 8–13 2014.
[Crossref]

Sliwczynski, L.

Ł. Sliwczynski and J. Kołodziej, “Bidirectional optical amplification in long-distance two-way fiber-optic time and frequency transfer systems,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62(1), 253–262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sliwczyski, L.

L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, and M. Lipiski, “Dissemination of time and RF frequency via a stabilized fibre optic link over a distance of 420 km,” Metrologia 50(2), 133–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stefani, F.

A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, and A. Amy-Klein, “In-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical fiber link,” J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31(4), 678–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutyrin, D. V.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
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Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
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Takamizawa, A.

Takamoto, M.

Terra, O.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
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D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642 km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
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S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
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B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
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Williams, P. A.

Wineland, D. J.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329(5999), 1630–1633 (2010).
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Wu, D.

J. Kim, D. Wu, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Stability characterization of an optical injection phase locked loop for optical frequency transfer applications,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, June 8–13 2014.
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B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
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F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51(3), 270–284 (2014).
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I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015), doi:.
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Nature (1)

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New J. Phys. (1)

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, B. Darquie, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073003 (2013).
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C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” Photon. Techn. Lett. 25(17), 1711–1714 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
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Sci Rep (1)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 Accuracy Level,” Sci Rep 2, 556 (2012).
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K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
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Other (5)

J. Kim, D. Wu, G. Marra, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Stability characterization of an optical injection phase locked loop for optical frequency transfer applications,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, June 8–13 2014.
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L. Sliwczyski and P. Krehlik, “Measurement of acoustic noise in field-deployed fiber optic cables,” Poster at European Frequency and Time Forum, Neuchatel, 2014.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Common experimental setup for optical link with phase-stabilization. Details of experiments with metro fiber link and inter-city fiber link are reported in Sec. 3 and Sec. 4 respectively. FPC: Fabry-Pérot cavity; AOM1 and AOM2: acusto-optic modulators; PD1 and PD2: photodiodes; triangles represent optical amplifiers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup used to evaluate DRA on a 94 km dedicated-channel optical link in the metropolitan area. A Raman pump laser is coupled at the remote fiber end through the Wavelength Division Multiplexer WDM2. AOM1 and AOM2: acusto-optical modulators; OADM1 and OADM2: optical add/drop multiplexers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured ON-OFF Raman gain for metrological signal at 1542.14 nm versus pump power.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The scheme used to evaluate DRA on a 180 km dedicated-fiber inter-city optical link. Two Raman amplifiers are used at the two link ends. AOM1 and AOM2: acusto-optical modulators; WDM1 and WDM2: wavelength division multiplexers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 OTDR trace along the first 20 km fiber in the inter-city link, with indication of significant loss events.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Numerical estimate of the DRA signal-pump evolution based on OTDR loss measurements, along the first 25 km (on the left) and the last 25 km fiber spans (on the right).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phase noise spectra of the free-running (thin traces) and compensated (thick traces) 94 km multiplexed link (black traces) and of the 180 km link on dedicated fiber (red traces), and interferometer noise floor (dotted blue thin line).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Fractional frequency instability values of the non-compensated (black circles) and compensated (black squares) metro link (94 km), as well as instability values of the non-compensated (red circles) and compensated (red squares) inter-city link (180 km). The blue diamonds represent the interferometer noise floor.

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