Abstract

This work investigates the performance evolution of color cone lasing emissions (CCLEs) based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) cells at different fabrication conditions. Experimental results show that the energy threshold (Eth) and relative slope efficiency (ηs) of the lasing signal emitted at each cone angle (0°–35°) in the CCLE decreases and increases, respectively, when the waiting time in a homogenously rubbed aligned DDCLC cell is increased from 0 hr to 216 hr (9 days). This result occurs because defect lines gradually shrink with the anchoring of the surface alignment when the waiting time is increased. Hence, the scattering loss decreases, and the dwelling time of the fluorescence photons in the resonator increases, which in turn enhances the CCLE performance. With the aligned cell given the pretreatment of a rapid annealing processing (RAP), the waiting time for obtaining an optimum CCLE can markedly be reduced sixfold. The surface alignment of the DDCLC cell also plays a necessary role in generating the CCLE. This work provides an insight into the temporal evolution of the performance for the CCLE laser and offers a method (RAP) of significantly speeding up the formation of a CCLE laser with optimum performance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient

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References

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  1. H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, S.-H. Lin, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, C.-T. Kuo, and H.-C. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the Fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Muñoz, M. E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and B. Taheri, “Continuous wave mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals with a pitch gradient across the cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2904–2906 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J.-D. Lin, M.-H. Hsieh, G.-J. Wei, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Optically tunable/switchable omnidirectionally spherical microlaser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal microdroplet with an azo-chiral dopant,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15765–15776 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 369–416 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, K.-L. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, K.-Y. Lo, S.-H. Chang, Y. G. Fuh, and S.-Y. Huang, “Color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a single pitch,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12910–12921 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S.-H. Lin and C.-R. Lee, “Novel dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cone lasers with various birefringences and associated tunabilities of lasing feature and performance,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18199–18206 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, J.-D. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, and S.-Y. Huang, “Unique spatial continuously tunable cone laser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a birefringence gradient,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 159–163 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Evolution of disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 041701 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

A. Muñoz, M. E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and B. Taheri, “Continuous wave mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals with a pitch gradient across the cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2904–2906 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, J.-D. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, and S.-Y. Huang, “Unique spatial continuously tunable cone laser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a birefringence gradient,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 159–163 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (3)

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Evolution of disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 041701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Barberi, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barna, V.

Bartolino, R.

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chilaya, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coles, H.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Luca, A.

Fan, B.

Ferjani, S.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fuh, Y. G.

Fujii, A.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganzke, D.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

Haase, W.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M.-H.

Huang, B.-Y.

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-Y.

Inoue, K.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, T.-D.

Kasano, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kitasho, T.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kopp, V. I.

Kosa, T.

Ku, H.-S.

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-T.

Lee, C.-R.

J.-D. Lin, Y.-M. Lin, T.-S. Mo, and C.-R. Lee, “Photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap device and laser in a dye-doped blue phase with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9171–9181 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Lin, M.-H. Hsieh, G.-J. Wei, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Optically tunable/switchable omnidirectionally spherical microlaser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal microdroplet with an azo-chiral dopant,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15765–15776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, J.-D. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, and S.-Y. Huang, “Unique spatial continuously tunable cone laser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a birefringence gradient,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 159–163 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Lin and C.-R. Lee, “Novel dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cone lasers with various birefringences and associated tunabilities of lasing feature and performance,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18199–18206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, S.-H. Lin, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, C.-T. Kuo, and H.-C. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the Fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, K.-L. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, K.-Y. Lo, S.-H. Chang, Y. G. Fuh, and S.-Y. Huang, “Color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a single pitch,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12910–12921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, J.-D.

Lin, K.-L.

Lin, S.-H.

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, J.-D. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, and S.-Y. Huang, “Unique spatial continuously tunable cone laser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a birefringence gradient,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 159–163 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Lin and C.-R. Lee, “Novel dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cone lasers with various birefringences and associated tunabilities of lasing feature and performance,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18199–18206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, S.-H. Lin, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, C.-T. Kuo, and H.-C. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the Fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, K.-L. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, K.-Y. Lo, S.-H. Chang, Y. G. Fuh, and S.-Y. Huang, “Color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a single pitch,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12910–12921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-M.

Liu, J.-H.

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, K.-Y.

Luchette, P.

Mazzulla, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

McConney, M. E.

Mo, T.-S.

Moritake, H.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morris, S.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, A.

Oriol, L.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

Shinpo, T.

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shiozaki, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangi, G.

Sukhomlinova, L.

Taheri, B.

A. Muñoz, M. E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and B. Taheri, “Continuous wave mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals with a pitch gradient across the cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2904–2906 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Versace, C.

Vithana, H. K. M.

Wei, G.-J.

White, T. J.

Yang, D. K.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Evolution of disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 041701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.-C.

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, and C.-H. Lin, “Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1398–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeh, H.-C.

Yoshida, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Evolution of disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 041701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-Q.

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable liquid-crystal laser,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 974–977 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, J.-D. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, and S.-Y. Huang, “Unique spatial continuously tunable cone laser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a birefringence gradient,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 159–163 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Ozaki, T. Shinpo, and H. Moritake, “Improvement of orientation of planar cholesteric liquid crystal by rapid thermal processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163304 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-S. Ku, J.-H. Liu, P.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Huang, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Optically band-tunable color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, T.-D. Ji, K.-L. Lin, T.-S. Mo, C.-T. Kuo, K.-Y. Lo, S.-H. Chang, Y. G. Fuh, and S.-Y. Huang, “Color cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a single pitch,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12910–12921 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, H.-C. Yeh, and T.-D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-R. Lee, J.-D. Lin, B.-Y. Huang, S.-H. Lin, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, C.-T. Kuo, and H.-C. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the Fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Lin and C.-R. Lee, “Novel dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cone lasers with various birefringences and associated tunabilities of lasing feature and performance,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18199–18206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Lin, M.-H. Hsieh, G.-J. Wei, T.-S. Mo, S.-Y. Huang, and C.-R. Lee, “Optically tunable/switchable omnidirectionally spherical microlaser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal microdroplet with an azo-chiral dopant,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15765–15776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-D. Lin, Y.-M. Lin, T.-S. Mo, and C.-R. Lee, “Photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap device and laser in a dye-doped blue phase with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9171–9181 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Evolution of disclinations in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 041701 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Obtained lasing pattern (left) and transmittance and lasing emission spectra (right) based on the homogeneously-aligned DDCLC cell measured at cone angles from 0° to 45° as the cell is excited using the pumped pulses with E = 15 μJ/pulse at (a) tW = 0 hr and (b) tW = 216 hr, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Evolution of the intensity variation of the lasing emission output of the aligned DDCLC cell with the pumped energy in the CCLE at different angles of (a) 0°, (b) 20°, (c) 25°, (d) 30°, (e) 35°, (f) 40°, and (g) 45°. The symbols ●, ●, ●, ● ●, ●, ●, and ○ represent related data corresponding with tW = 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, 192, and 216 hr, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variations of (a) the energy threshold and (b) the relative slope efficiency of the CCLE based on the aligned DDCLC cell with the waiting time measured at five various angles, 0°, 20°, 25°, 30°, and 35°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of the CLC structures observed under POM with crossed polarizers based on the aligned DDCLC cell at different waiting times of tW = (a) 0, (b) 24, (c) 48, (d) 72, (e) 144, and (f) 216 hr.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission pattern on the screen behind cell B (left), transmittance and lasing spectra of the CCLE (middle) measured at various angles of θ = 0° to 45°, and images of the CLC texture observed under POM with crossed polarizers in cell B (right) at tW = (a) 0, (b) 72, and (c) 216 hr. The cell is pumped using incident pulses with energy of 15 μJ/pulse. The zoom with enhanced contrast in the POM image, as shown in (c), indicates that the CLC exhibits a fine focal-conic-like texture even at tW = 216 hr.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Evolutions of the intensity variation of the lasing emission of the nonaligned DDCLC cell with the pumped energy measured at (a) 0° and (b) 35°. The symbols ●, ●, ●, ●, ●, and ● represent related data measured at tW = 0, 24, 48, 72, 144, and 216 hr, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images of the CLC structures observed under POM with crossed polarizers with a pretreatment of RAP at tW = 0 and 36 hr based on (a) cell C and (b) cell D. The lasing pattern on the screen and the lasing and transmittance spectra of cells C and D are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variations in the lasing emission with the pumped energy measured at (a) 0° and (b) 35° based on the DDCLC cells A, B, C, and D.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations in the lasing emission output with the pumped energy measured at (a) 20°, (b) 25°, and (c) 30° based on the DDCLC cells A and C (full and empty dots, respectively).

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