Abstract

Bragg gratings photo-inscribed in polymer optical fibers (POFs) are more sensitive to temperature and pressure than their silica counterparts, because of their larger thermo-optic coefficient and smaller Young’s modulus. Polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) are most often photo-written in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based materials using a continuous-wave 325 nm HeCd laser. In this work, we present the first study about birefringence effects in POFBGs manufactured in different types of fiber. To achieve this, highly reflective (> 90%) gratings were produced with the phase mask technique. Their spectral response was then monitored in transmission with polarized light. Polarization dependent loss (PDL) and differential group delay (DGD) were computed from the Jones matrix eigenanalysis using an optical vector analyzer. Maximum values exceeding several dB and a few picoseconds were obtained for the PDL and DGD, respectively. An inverse scattering technique applied to the experimental data provided an estimate of the photo-induced birefringence value arising from the side fabrication process. The response to lateral force was finally investigated for various incident directions using the PDL response of FBGs manufactured in step-index POFs. As the force induced birefringence adds to the photo-induced one, a force dependent evolution of the PDL maximum value was noticed, with a good temperature-insensitivity.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (6)

2012 (3)

A. Stefani, M. Stecher, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Direct writing of fiber Bragg grating in microstructured polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1148–1150 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Tunable polymer fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription: fabrication of dual-FBG temperature compensated polymer optical fiber strain sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 401–403 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and G. Peng, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating acting as an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1370–1372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Z. F. Zhang, C. Zhang, X. M. Tao, G. F. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating at 962 nm and its potential in strain sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1562–1564 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, “Bragg grating in a polymer optical fibre for strain, bend and temperature sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, M. Wang, and X. Huang, “High-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating transverse force sensor based on centroid measurement of polarization-dependent loss,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(6), 065304 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750380 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Influence of the grating parameters on the polarization properties of fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1000–1010 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Transverse strain measurements using the birefringence effect in fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Belhadj, S. Larochelle, and K. Dossou, “Form birefringence in UV-exposed photosensitive fibers computed using a higher order finite element method,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1720–1726 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 159–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Y. Liu, H. B. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 220(4-6), 337–343 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Thermal tuning of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 824–826 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

Alberto, N. J.

C. A. F. Marques, L. B. Bilro, N. J. Alberto, D. J. Webb, and R. N. Nogueira, “Inscription of narrow bandwidth Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andresen, S.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Argyros, A.

Bache, M.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. Markos, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, W. Yuan, and O. Bang, “High-Tg TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber for fiber Bragg grating strain sensing at 110 degrees,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4758–4765 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Highly photosensitive polymethyl methacrylate microstructured polymer optical fiber with doped core,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3769–3772 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Highly photosensitive polymethyl methacrylate microstructured polymer optical fiber with doped core,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3769–3772 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Stefani, M. Stecher, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Direct writing of fiber Bragg grating in microstructured polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1148–1150 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Tunable polymer fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription: fabrication of dual-FBG temperature compensated polymer optical fiber strain sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 401–403 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Belhadj, N.

Berghmans, F.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bette, S.

Bilro, L. B.

C. A. F. Marques, L. B. Bilro, N. J. Alberto, D. J. Webb, and R. N. Nogueira, “Inscription of narrow bandwidth Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blondel, M.

Capmany, J.

Carroll, K.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carroll, K. E.

Caucheteur, C.

X. Hu, C.-F. J. Pun, H.-Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18807–18817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu, C. F. Pun, H. Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted Bragg gratings in step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6835–6838 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Influence of the grating parameters on the polarization properties of fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1000–1010 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Transverse strain measurements using the birefringence effect in fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Spectral characterization of differential group delay in uniform fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9954–9960 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lhommé, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, M. Blondel, and P. Mégret, “Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating parameters from experimental reflectivity: a simplex approach and its application to the determination of temperature-dependent properties,” Appl. Opt. 44(4), 493–497 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chah, K.

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, “Bragg grating in a polymer optical fibre for strain, bend and temperature sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094005 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750380 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. L.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 159–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, H. B. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 220(4-6), 337–343 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Thermal tuning of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 824–826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999).
[Crossref]

De Waele, W.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Degrieck, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dobb, H.

Dossou, K.

Emiliyanov, G.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

Garcia-Olcina, R.

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hansen, K. S.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herholdt-Rasmussen, N.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

Huang, X.

Y. Wang, M. Wang, and X. Huang, “High-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating transverse force sensor based on centroid measurement of polarization-dependent loss,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(6), 065304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, T.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

James, S. W.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Johnson, I. P.

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, “Bragg grating in a polymer optical fibre for strain, bend and temperature sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094005 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3296–3298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, L.

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinet, D.

Kjaer, E.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Komodromos, M.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kowal, D.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Large, M.

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Large, M. C. J.

Larochelle, S.

Lhommé, F.

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 159–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, H. B. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 220(4-6), 337–343 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 159–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, H. B. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 220(4-6), 337–343 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Thermal tuning of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 824–826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luyckx, G.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Markos, C.

Marques, C. A. F.

C. A. F. Marques, L. B. Bilro, N. J. Alberto, D. J. Webb, and R. N. Nogueira, “Inscription of narrow bandwidth Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marrone, M. J.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Mégret, P.

X. Hu, C.-F. J. Pun, H.-Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18807–18817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu, C. F. Pun, H. Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted Bragg gratings in step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6835–6838 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Influence of the grating parameters on the polarization properties of fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1000–1010 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, “Transverse strain measurements using the birefringence effect in fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Spectral characterization of differential group delay in uniform fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9954–9960 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lhommé, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, M. Blondel, and P. Mégret, “Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating parameters from experimental reflectivity: a simplex approach and its application to the determination of temperature-dependent properties,” Appl. Opt. 44(4), 493–497 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mergo, P.

Mizrahi, V.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, F. K.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, K.

Nogueira, R. N.

C. A. F. Marques, L. B. Bilro, N. J. Alberto, D. J. Webb, and R. N. Nogueira, “Inscription of narrow bandwidth Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.

Peng, G. D.

Z. F. Zhang, C. Zhang, X. M. Tao, G. F. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating at 962 nm and its potential in strain sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1562–1564 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, “Bragg grating in a polymer optical fibre for strain, bend and temperature sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094005 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750380 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Novel growth behaviors of fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fiber under UV irradiation with low power,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 159–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, H. B. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Observation of type I and type II gratings behavior in polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 220(4-6), 337–343 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Thermal tuning of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 824–826 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pun, C. F.

Pun, C.-F. J.

Rashleigh, S. C.

Rasmussen, H.

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, H. K.

Rose, B.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sáez-Rodríguez, D.

Sales, S.

Sørensen, O. B.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Staines, S. E.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Stecher, M.

A. Stefani, M. Stecher, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Direct writing of fiber Bragg grating in microstructured polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1148–1150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stefani, A.

C. Markos, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, W. Yuan, and O. Bang, “High-Tg TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber for fiber Bragg grating strain sensing at 110 degrees,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4758–4765 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Stefani, M. Stecher, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Direct writing of fiber Bragg grating in microstructured polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1148–1150 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Tunable polymer fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription: fabrication of dual-FBG temperature compensated polymer optical fiber strain sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 401–403 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tam, H.-Y.

Tao, X. M.

Z. F. Zhang, C. Zhang, X. M. Tao, G. F. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating at 962 nm and its potential in strain sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1562–1564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tarnowski, K.

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Terryn, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Town, G. E.

A. Stefani, M. Stecher, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Direct writing of fiber Bragg grating in microstructured polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1148–1150 (2012).
[Crossref]

Urbanczyk, W.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, K. Tarnowski, D. Kowal, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, “Fabrication of multiple Bragg gratings in microstructured polymer fibers using a phase mask with several diffraction orders,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8521–8534 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Voet, E.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. F.

Z. F. Zhang, C. Zhang, X. M. Tao, G. F. Wang, and G. D. Peng, “Inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating at 962 nm and its potential in strain sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1562–1564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Y. Wang, M. Wang, and X. Huang, “High-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating transverse force sensor based on centroid measurement of polarization-dependent loss,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(6), 065304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Wang, and X. Huang, “High-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating transverse force sensor based on centroid measurement of polarization-dependent loss,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(6), 065304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

W. Zhang and D. J. Webb, “Humidity responsivity of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based optical fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 3026–3029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Highly photosensitive polymethyl methacrylate microstructured polymer optical fiber with doped core,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3769–3772 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, L. B. Bilro, N. J. Alberto, D. J. Webb, and R. N. Nogueira, “Inscription of narrow bandwidth Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075404 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Highly photosensitive polymethyl methacrylate microstructured polymer optical fiber with doped core,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3769–3772 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and G. Peng, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating acting as an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1370–1372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19731–19739 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G. D. Peng, and K. Kalli, “Bragg grating in a polymer optical fibre for strain, bend and temperature sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094005 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750380 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, K. Carroll, C. Zhang, M. Komodromos, A. Argyros, M. Large, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, and E. Kjaer, “Recent developments of Bragg gratings in PMMA and TOPAS polymer optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6830, 683002 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3296–3298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojcik, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” Phot. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wuilpart, M.

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.-C.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W.

C. Markos, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, W. Yuan, and O. Bang, “High-Tg TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber for fiber Bragg grating strain sensing at 110 degrees,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4758–4765 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, “Tunable polymer fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription: fabrication of dual-FBG temperature compensated polymer optical fiber strain sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 401–403 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, “Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. P. Johnson, W. Yuan, A. Stefani, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and O. Bang, “Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 271–272 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750380 (2009).
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K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007).
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[Crossref]

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E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13(4), 888–895 (2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section images of POFs used in this work: (a) step-index PMMA POF, (b) microstructured PMMA POF and (c) highly birefringent microstructured PMMA POF (zoom around the fiber center).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmitted spectrum, PDL and DGD for a 6 mm long step-index POFBG: experimental profiles (blue curves) and numerical fit (red curves).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmitted spectrum, PDL and DGD for a 5 mm long mPOFBG: experimental evolutions (blue curves) and numerical fit (red curves).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Orthogonally-polarized insertion loss and PDL for a 5 mm long FBG in highly birefringent mPOF.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sketch of the experimental set-up used for transverse force test.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Change of the maximum PDL amplitude for increasing and decreasing transverse force values applied along the two directions providing opposite behaviors.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sensitivity of PDL shift versus transverse force in the range 0°-360° for a 6 mm long FBG in step-index POF. The sketches show the relative orientation of the applied force with respect to the laser incidence.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PDL amplitude variation versus temperature in the range [25-45 °C].

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