Abstract

We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Femtosecond laser and arc discharge induced microstructuring on optical fiber tip for the multidirectional firing

Ik-Bu Sohn, Youngseop Kim, Young-Chul Noh, In Won Lee, Jun Ki Kim, and Ho Lee
Opt. Express 18(19) 19755-19760 (2010)

Optical properties of fiber optic surgical tips

David Royston, Ronald Waynant, A. Banks, S. Ramee, and C. J. White
Appl. Opt. 28(4) 799-803 (1989)

In-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography using a conical-tip fiber

K. M. Tan, M. Mazilu, T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee, K. Taguchi, B. K. Ng, W. Sibbett, C. S. Herrington, C. T. A. Brown, and K. Dholakia
Opt. Express 17(4) 2375-2384 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. G. Bown, “Phototherapy in tumors,” World J. Surg. 7(6), 700–709 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fiber in Medicine (Academic, 1993).
  3. C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Wang and N. Chocat, “Fiber-optic technologies in laser-based therapeutics: Threads for a cure,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 11(4), 384–397 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. O. Göckeritz, “Current standards and recent progress in minimally invasive phlebo surgery,” J. Cutan. Aesthet. Surg. 5(2), 104–114 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  9. R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. Payne and P. Mikus, “Optical fiber tip for use in a laser delivery system and a method for forming same,” U. S. Patent, no. 5253312 (1993).
  14. C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I.-B. Sohn, Y. Kim, Y.-C. Noh, I. W. Lee, J. K. Kim, and H. Lee, “Femtosecond laser and arc discharge induced microstructuring on optical fiber tip for the multidirectional firing,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19755–19760 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. C. Mizeret and H. E. van den Bergh, “Cylindrical fiberoptic light diffuser for medical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(2), 159–167 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, J. Na, B. H. Lee, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Single-body lensed photonic crystal fibers as side-viewing probes for optical imaging systems,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 34–36 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. M. Tan, M. Mazilu, T. H. Chow, W. M. Lee, K. Taguichi, B. K. Ng, W. Sibbett, C. S. Herrington, C. T. A. Brown, and K. Dholakia, “In-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography using a conical-tip fiber,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2375–2384 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Hmelar and N. Manoukian, “Side firing fiber optic laser probe,” U. S. Patent, no. 5772657 (1998).
  22. J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Xiao, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single-mode fibers by repeated arc discharges,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 115–117 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, “Matrix method in paraxial optics,” in Introduction to Optics 3rd ed. (Pearson Education, 2007) Chap. 18.
  26. H. Kogelnik, “On the propagation of Gaussian beams of light through lenslike media including those with a loss or gain variation,” Appl. Opt. 4(12), 1562–1569 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Göckeritz, “Current standards and recent progress in minimally invasive phlebo surgery,” J. Cutan. Aesthet. Surg. 5(2), 104–114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. C. Mizeret and H. E. van den Bergh, “Cylindrical fiberoptic light diffuser for medical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(2), 159–167 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. G. Bown, “Phototherapy in tumors,” World J. Surg. 7(6), 700–709 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

Bartelt, H.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boon, T. A.

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

S. G. Bown, “Phototherapy in tumors,” World J. Surg. 7(6), 700–709 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. T. A.

Chang, K. S.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chocat, N.

Z. Wang and N. Chocat, “Fiber-optic technologies in laser-based therapeutics: Threads for a cure,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 11(4), 384–397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, J. W.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chow, T. H.

Cui, Y.

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demokan, M. S.

Dholakia, K.

Förster, W.

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, R.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göckeritz, O.

O. Göckeritz, “Current standards and recent progress in minimally invasive phlebo surgery,” J. Cutan. Aesthet. Surg. 5(2), 104–114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graser, R.

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrington, C. S.

Hibst, R.

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jeon, M. J.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

Jung, D.

I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, J. H.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H. W.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiser, G.

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. H.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.-H.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

I.-B. Sohn, Y. Kim, Y.-C. Noh, I. W. Lee, J. K. Kim, and H. Lee, “Femtosecond laser and arc discharge induced microstructuring on optical fiber tip for the multidirectional firing,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19755–19760 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-H.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Kogelnik, H.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, H.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
[Crossref]

I.-B. Sohn, Y. Kim, Y.-C. Noh, I. W. Lee, J. K. Kim, and H. Lee, “Femtosecond laser and arc discharge induced microstructuring on optical fiber tip for the multidirectional firing,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19755–19760 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I. W.

Lee, J.

Lee, R. D.

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

Lee, W. M.

Mazilu, M.

Mizeret, J. C.

J. C. Mizeret and H. E. van den Bergh, “Cylindrical fiberoptic light diffuser for medical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(2), 159–167 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molenaar, D. G.

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Na, J.

Ng, B. K.

Noh, Y.-C.

Norris, D. M.

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

Norris, J. P.

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubenstein, M. A.

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, J. Na, B. H. Lee, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Single-body lensed photonic crystal fibers as side-viewing probes for optical imaging systems,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 34–36 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwuchow, A.

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shum, P. P.

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Sohn, I.-B.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegmayer, T.

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stock, K.

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taguichi, K.

Tan, K. M.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H. E.

J. C. Mizeret and H. E. van den Bergh, “Cylindrical fiberoptic light diffuser for medical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(2), 159–167 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Swol, C. F.

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Swol, C. F. P.

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Vliet, R. J.

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walsh, L. J.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and N. Chocat, “Fiber-optic technologies in laser-based therapeutics: Threads for a cure,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 11(4), 384–397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

Xiong, F.

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. D.

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. (1)

Z. Wang and N. Chocat, “Fiber-optic technologies in laser-based therapeutics: Threads for a cure,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 11(4), 384–397 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. K. Kim, J. W. Choi, A. Schwuchow, H. Bartelt, T.-H. Kim, W. J. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. Y. Kim, S. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, I.-H. Kim, and K. S. Chang, “Multidirectional illuminating optical fiber tip on beam expanding coreless silica fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(24), 2431–2434 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Keiser, F. Xiong, Y. Cui, and P. P. Shum, “Review of diverse optical fibers used in biomedical research and clinical practice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cutan. Aesthet. Surg. (1)

O. Göckeritz, “Current standards and recent progress in minimally invasive phlebo surgery,” J. Cutan. Aesthet. Surg. 5(2), 104–114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (1)

J. P. Norris, D. M. Norris, R. D. Lee, and M. A. Rubenstein, “Visual laser ablation of the prostate: clinical experience in 108 patients,” J. Urol. 150(5 Pt 2), 1612–1614 (1993).
[PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I.-B. Sohn, H. Lee, D. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, and C. Kim, “Fabrication of a bi-directional firing multimode fiber using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and a CO2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 106101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (5)

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Stock, T. Stegmayer, R. Graser, W. Förster, and R. Hibst, “Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 815–823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(7), 437–449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, M. J. Jeon, J. H. Jung, J. D. Yang, H. Park, H. W. Kang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of novel bundled fiber and performance assessment for clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(9), 718–725 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mizeret and H. E. van den Bergh, “Cylindrical fiberoptic light diffuser for medical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(2), 159–167 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. M. Verdaasdonk and C. F. van Swol, “Laser light delivery systems for medical applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(5), 869–894 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: A review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, and S. A. Prahl, “Design and testing of an endoscopic photoacoustic probe for determining treatment depth after photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 16–27 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Surg. (1)

S. G. Bown, “Phototherapy in tumors,” World J. Surg. 7(6), 700–709 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Urol. (1)

C. F. P. van Swol, R. M. Verdaasdonk, R. J. van Vliet, D. G. Molenaar, and T. A. Boon, “Side-firing devices for laser prostatectomy,” World J. Urol. 13(2), 88–93 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fiber in Medicine (Academic, 1993).

E. Payne and P. Mikus, “Optical fiber tip for use in a laser delivery system and a method for forming same,” U. S. Patent, no. 5253312 (1993).

F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, “Matrix method in paraxial optics,” in Introduction to Optics 3rd ed. (Pearson Education, 2007) Chap. 18.

M. Hmelar and N. Manoukian, “Side firing fiber optic laser probe,” U. S. Patent, no. 5772657 (1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process of the radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket and the cross-section images of the hollow optical fiber (HOF) and the conventional optical fiber (COF).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side view of (a) the fabricated radial-firing fiber [Fig. 1(c)], and the magnified images of end region of (b) the conventional optical fiber (COF) with flat end surface and (c) the radial-firing optical fiber tip.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microscope images of the encased air-pockets of the radial-firing fibers, (a); Sample 1, (b); Sample 2, (c); Sample 3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup to measure the angular emission profile of the laser beam irradiated from the radial-firing fiber tip.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission images of the laser beam (λ = 632.8) at the radial-firing optical fiber tips, (a); Sample 1, (b); Sample 2, (c); Sample 3, (d); COF.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Angular emission profile of the radial-firing optical fibers (Sample 1, 2) and forward-firing optical fiber (Sample3) containing a conical-shaped air pocket, Inset: Emission profile of the COF.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the theoretical (lines) and the experimental (circles) emission angle of the laser beam at the optical fiber tips, S1; Sample 1, S2; Sample 2, S3; Sample 3.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of the optical fiber with air-pocket (Sample 3) and the parameters for the ABCD matrix calculation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Emission image (Sample 2) of the radial-firing inside a bottle of saline, (left) side view and (right) top view.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ γ α ] = M 78 M 67 M 56 M 45 M 34 M 23 M 12 [ γ o α o ] ,
M 12 , M 34 , M 56 , M 78 = [ 1 L i j 0 1 ] , M 23 , M 45 , M 67 = [ 1 0 n j n i n j R i j n i n j ] , ( + R i j ) : c o n v e x ( R i j ) : c o n c a v e ,

Metrics