Abstract

We demonstrate controllable and tunable full color light generation through the monolithic integration of blue, green/yellow, and orange/red InGaN nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Such multi-color nanowire LED arrays are fabricated directly on Si substrate using a three-step selective area molecular beam epitaxy growth process. The lateral-arranged multi-color subpixels enable controlled light mixing at the chip-level and yield color-tunable light emission with CCT values in the range from 1900 K to 6800 K, while maintaining excellent color rendering capability. This work provides a viable approach for achieving micron and nanoscale tunable full-color LED arrays without the compromise between the device efficiency and light quality associated with conventional phosphor-based LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Warm-white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index fabricated by combining trichromatic InGaN emitter with single red phosphor

Jinn-Kong Sheu, Fu-Bang Chen, Yen-Chin Wang, Chih-Chiang Chang, Shih-Hsien Huang, Chun-Nan Liu, and Ming-Lun Lee
Opt. Express 23(7) A232-A239 (2015)

Color temperature tunable white light based on monolithic color-tunable light emitting diodes

Hussein S. El-Ghoroury, Yoshitake Nakajima, Milton Yeh, Evan Liang, Chih-Li Chuang, and J. C. Chen
Opt. Express 28(2) 1206-1215 (2020)

Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector

Jung-Chieh Su and Chun-Lin Lu
Opt. Express 17(24) 21408-21413 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  8. H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-tunable and phosphor-free white-light multilayered light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(1), 6384727 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).
  22. K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-tunable and phosphor-free white-light multilayered light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(1), 6384727 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Albert, S.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aloni, S.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bengoechea-Encabo, A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkley, S.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calleja, E.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. L.

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheung, Y. F.

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-tunable and phosphor-free white-light multilayered light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(1), 6384727 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chmelka, B. F.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. W.

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-tunable and phosphor-free white-light multilayered light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(1), 6384727 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connie, A. T.

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couillard, M.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cui, K.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y. R.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Egawa, S.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fathololoumi, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, N.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gwo, S.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. L.

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Honda, T.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H. C.

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Im, W. B.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahangir, S.

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, S.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kibria, M. G.

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kishino, K.

K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kong, X.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korinek, A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurzman, J.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuykendall, T.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. M.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Q. M.

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. C.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lieber, C. M.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. W.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. J.

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mandl, M.

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mikhailovsky, A.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nagashima, K.

K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. P. T.

H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, F.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sadaf, S. M.

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

Sánchez-García, M. A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawada, M.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, H.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seong, H. K.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seshadri, R.

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shih, I.

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strassburg, M.

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, K.

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tan, L.

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulrich, P.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. T.

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. L.

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamano, K.

K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S. J.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, G. C.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, X.

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, A.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and color-tunable oxyfluoride solid solution phosphors for solid-state white lighting,” Adv. Mater. 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

H. Li, P. Li, J. Kang, Z. Li, Z. C. Li, J. Li, X. Yi, and G. Wang, “Phosphor-free, color-tunable monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102103 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, K. Nagashima, and K. Yamano, “Monolithic integration of InGaN-based nanocolumn light-emitting diodes with different emission colors,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(1), 012101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Jahangir, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and P. Bhattacharya, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and optical properties of red-emitting (lambda=650 nm) InGaN/GaN disks-in-nanowires on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. M. Li and G. T. Wang, “Strain influenced indium composition distribution in GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lin, Y. J. Lu, H. Y. Chen, H. M. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chang, J. L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency green, yellow, and amber emission from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(1), 013106 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire red light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Y. F. Cheung and H. W. Choi, “Color-tunable and phosphor-free white-light multilayered light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(1), 6384727 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

T. Honda, T. Kobayashi, S. Egawa, M. Sawada, K. Sugimoto, and T. Baba, “Integrated light-emitting diodes grown by MOVPE for flat panel displays,” J. Cryst. Growth 298(1), 736–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Displ. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Displ. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Displ.Technol. (1)

X. J. Yu, Y. L. Ho, L. Tan, H. C. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, “LED-based projection systems,” J. Displ.Technol. 3(3), 295–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

H. P. T. Nguyen, Q. Wang, and Z. Mi, “Phosphor-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white light emitting diodes on Cu substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 868–872 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, S. M. Sadaf, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Engineering the color rendering index of phosphor-free InGaN/(Al)GaN nanowire white light emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 02C113 (2014).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LEDs for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(2), e141 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, K. Cui, X. Han, S. Fathololoumi, M. Couillard, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111),” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1919–1924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

S. Zhao, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, and Z. Mi, “Growth of large-scale vertically aligned GaN nanowires and their heterostructures with high uniformity on SiOx by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5283–5287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, M. A. Sánchez-García, X. Kong, A. Trampert, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): From ultraviolet to infrared emission,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, S. Fathololoumi, and Z. Mi, “Full-color InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light emitting diodes on silicon,” Nanotechnology 22(44), 445202 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

T. Kuykendall, P. Ulrich, S. Aloni, and P. Yang, “Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 951–956 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the three-step substrate preparation and epitaxial growth process. (a) Si substrate was patterned by a thin SiOx layer. (b) The 1st step blue nanowire LEDs were grown on the patterned substrate. (c) The SiOx mask, together with the nanowires formed on top, were selectively removed. (d) The 1st step LEDs were covered with SiOx, and the 2nd step (green) nanowire LEDs were grown. (d) The 1st step and 2nd step LEDs were covered with SiOx, and the 3rd step (red) nanowire LEDs were grown. (e) SiOx and nanowires on SiOx were selectively removed, resulting in the formation of multi-color nanowire LED arrays on Si.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) InGaN/GaN red-emitting nanowires grown on Si in the 3rd epitaxy step and (b) InGaN/GaN nanowires formed near the boundary between SiOx mask and open Si area. (c) Optical microscope image of multi-color nanowire LED arrays grown using the three-step MBE process after the removal of the SiOx mask. The blue, green/yellow, and orange/red-emitting nanowire LEDs grown in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd step are denoted as 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized PL spectra of multi-color nanowire LED subpixels monolithically grown on Si substrate measured at 300 K. (b) Schematic of multi-color nanowire LED devices on the same chip. The thickness of each layer is not drawn to scale.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Current-voltage characteristics of 300 × 300 µm2 LED subpixels with red, yellow and green emissions. (b) Normalized EL spectra of nanowire LED subpixels monolithically integrated on Si substrate. The corresponding optical images are shown in the inset.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Relative light power of blue, green, yellow, orange and red-emitting LED subpixels under various injection currents up to 800 mA (1% duty cycle pulsed biasing) at room-temperature. (b) The output spectra of a representative triple-color LED pixel with three 300 × 300 µm2 devices independently biased at various CW injection current, showing the wide range of tunability. A triple-color LED pixel is shown in the inset.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) CCT and CRI values of the emission measured from three triple-color LED pixels. The inset shows the corresponding locations in the CIE chromaticity diagram. (b) Normalized spectral power distribution of representative triple-color LED pixels with high CRI.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Injection current and relative EQE measured for LED subpixels for the overall emission with varied CCT(CRI)s.

Metrics