Abstract

Optical modulating retro-reflectors enable free-space optical links that have greatly reduced pointing requirements and do not require a laser at one end of the link. However, these types of links can exhibit very high optical scintillation due to the double passage of the beam through the atmosphere. This high scintillation causes fades and surges that can lead to packet errors in the link. It is shown that scintillation can be greatly reduced through a combination of techniques including retro-reflector diversity, aperture averaging and bistatic optical interrogation. Improvements of 20 dB in link performance are demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Yuksel, S. Milner, and C. C. Davis, “Aperture averaging for optimizing receiver design and system performance on free-space optical communication links,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(8), 462–475 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11(3), 233–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. L. Hutt, “Modeling and measurements of atmospheric optical turbulence over land,” Opt. Eng. 38(8), 1288–1295 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

G. Welch and R. L. Phillips, “Simulation of enhanced backscatter by a phase screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 5778–5784 (1990).

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

G. Y. Patrushev, A. I. Petrov, and V. V. Pokasov, “Intensity fluctuations upon specular reflection of optical beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 612–619 (1984).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

H. Stockman, “Communication by means of reflected power,” Proc. IRE 36(10), 1196–1204 (1948).

Andrews, L.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11(3), 233–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Anguita, J. A.

Binari, S.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burris, H. R.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Churnside, J. H.

Davis, C. C.

DeLaRue, I. A. A.

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

Ferraro, M.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ferraro, M. S.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

Frawley, S. J.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freeman, W.

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freeman, W. T.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

Fugate, R. Q.

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Goetz, P. G.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hacker, K.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hutt, D. L.

D. L. Hutt, “Modeling and measurements of atmospheric optical turbulence over land,” Opt. Eng. 38(8), 1288–1295 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jakeman, E.

Kazter, D. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koplow, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, B. M.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meehan, T. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Milner, S.

Moore, C. I.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murphy, J.

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

Murphy, J. L.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neifeld, M. A.

Oh, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patrushev, G. Y.

G. Y. Patrushev, A. I. Petrov, and V. V. Pokasov, “Intensity fluctuations upon specular reflection of optical beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 612–619 (1984).
[Crossref]

Petrov, A. I.

G. Y. Patrushev, A. I. Petrov, and V. V. Pokasov, “Intensity fluctuations upon specular reflection of optical beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 612–619 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11(3), 233–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Welch and R. L. Phillips, “Simulation of enhanced backscatter by a phase screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 5778–5784 (1990).

Plett, M.

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

Pokasov, V. V.

G. Y. Patrushev, A. I. Petrov, and V. V. Pokasov, “Intensity fluctuations upon specular reflection of optical beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 612–619 (1984).
[Crossref]

Rabinovich, W. S.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reese, S.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schultz, W. W.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. R.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sokolsky, I.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steed, C. A.

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

Stell, M.

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

Stell, M. F.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stockman, H.

H. Stockman, “Communication by means of reflected power,” Proc. IRE 36(10), 1196–1204 (1948).

Suite, M. R.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Atmospheric turbulence effects measured along horizontal-path optical retro-reflector links,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6147–6158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50(35), 6476–6483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Swenson, C. M.

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thomas, L. M.

Vasic, B. V.

Vasquez, J. A.

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vetelino, F. S.

Vilcheck, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Welch, G.

G. Welch and R. L. Phillips, “Simulation of enhanced backscatter by a phase screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 5778–5784 (1990).

Wilson, J. J.

Witkowsky, J. L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

Young, C.

Yuksel, H.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, W. R. Smith, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. J. Frawley, B. M. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems for small unmanned vehicles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 30(5), 986–992 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

G. Welch and R. L. Phillips, “Simulation of enhanced backscatter by a phase screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 5778–5784 (1990).

E. Jakeman, “Enhanced backscattering through a deep random phase screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(10), 1638–1648 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (4)

R. Mahon, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Plett, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. T. Freeman, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, M. Stell, and M. R. Suite, “Interference effects and aperture averaging in retroreflected light,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 0460021 (2008).

D. L. Hutt, “Modeling and measurements of atmospheric optical turbulence over land,” Opt. Eng. 38(8), 1288–1295 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 056001 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 045001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. IRE (1)

H. Stockman, “Communication by means of reflected power,” Proc. IRE 36(10), 1196–1204 (1948).

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. M. Swenson, C. A. Steed, I. A. A. DeLaRue, and R. Q. Fugate, “Low power FLC-based retromodulator communications system,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 296–310 (1997).

W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, D. S. Kazter, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, S. Binari, T. J. Meehan, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, and M. J. Vilcheck, “InGaAs multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflector for free space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 4489, 190–201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Y. Patrushev, A. I. Petrov, and V. V. Pokasov, “Intensity fluctuations upon specular reflection of optical beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 612–619 (1984).
[Crossref]

Waves Random Media (1)

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11(3), 233–245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media Second Edition, (SPIE Press 2005).

R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, J. Murphy, and W. S. Rabinovich, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Irradiance correlations in retro-reflected beams”.

H. Grubb, “Improvement in and Means for Signaling and Indicating Position of Objects,” U.K. Patent #21,856, GB190321856, issued October 6, 1904.

W. S. Rabinovich, “Optical Modulating Retro-reflectors,” in Advanced Wireless Optical Communication Systems, S. Arnon, J. R. Barry, G. K. Karagiannidis, R. Schober, M. Uysal, eds. (Cambridge University, 2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram of a modulating retro-reflector link.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized intensity for a 1.7 km link to (a) a single 2.5 cm diameter corner cube, (b) an array of three 2.5 cm diameter corner cubes separated by 5 cm, and (c) an array of three 2.5 cm diameter corner cubes separated by 5 cm with a quarter-wave plate covering the middle corner cube.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized intensity for a link to a single 2.5 cm diameter retro-reflector at a range of 1.7 km under conditions of saturated turbulence.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The scintillation index for a 1.7 km link to an array of (a) two retro-reflectors and (b) three retro-reflectors as a function of the separation between the retro-reflectors. Cases with a quarter wave plate (QWP) and without are shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimentally measured probability distribution function of the irradiance fluctuations of a 1.7 km link to an array of 3 retro-reflectors separated by 10 cm with a quarter-wave plate covering the middle retro-reflector (solid line), and a log-normal function with parameter σlnI2 = 2.0.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Estimated packet error rate percentage, derived from the statistics of the experimental data, for a 1.7 km link, under clear mid-day conditions, to a single 2.5 cm diameter retro-reflector, an array of two retro-reflectors separated by 20 cm with a quarter-wave plate on one, and an array of three retro-reflectors separated by 10 cm with a quarter-wave plate on the middle retro-reflector.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimentally measured scintillation index versus receive aperture size for a monostatic and bistatic interrogator illuminating an array of three 2.5 cm diameter corner cubes separated by 10 cm each. Also shown is a theoretical curve, in the spherical wave approximation, calculated with a root mean square Rytov variance of 1.8.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Estimated packet error rate percentage, derived from the statistics of the experimental data, for a 2.1 km link to a single 2.5 cm retro-reflector using a monostatic interrogator with a 2.8 cm aperture and the same link to an array of three 2.5 cm retro-reflectors separated by 10 cm using a bistatic interrogator with a 7 cm aperture.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ I 2 = I 2 I 2 1 ,
N f r i n g e = S r e t r o D r e c λ R ,
( R k ) 1 2 ,
( 0.55 C n 2 k 2 R ) 3 5 ,
2.44 λ D r e t r o R ,
β 0 = [ 0.5 C n 2 k 7 6 R 11 6 ] 1 2 ,

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