Abstract

An InGaAs/InAlAs Single Photon Avalanche Diode was fabricated and characterized. Leakage current, dark count and photon count measurements were carried out on the devices from 260 to 290 K. Due to better temperature stability of avalanche breakdown in InAlAs, the device breakdown voltage varied by < 0.2 V over the 30 K temperature range studied, which corresponds to a temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage less than 7 mV/K. The single photon detection efficiency achieved in gated mode was 21 and 10% at 260 and 290 K, respectively. However the dark count rates were high due to excessive band-to-band tunneling current in the InAlAs avalanche region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Tailoring the performances of low operating voltage InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors

Yingjie Ma, Yonggang Zhang, Yi Gu, Xingyou Chen, Suping Xi, Ben Du, and Hsby Li
Opt. Express 23(15) 19278-19287 (2015)

Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector

Aongus McCarthy, Ximing Ren, Adriano Della Frera, Nathan R. Gemmell, Nils J. Krichel, Carmelo Scarcella, Alessandro Ruggeri, Alberto Tosi, and Gerald S. Buller
Opt. Express 21(19) 22098-22113 (2013)

Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode

Nicholas J. D. Martinez, Michael Gehl, Christopher T. Derose, Andrew L. Starbuck, Andrew T. Pomerene, Anthony L. Lentine, Douglas C. Trotter, and Paul S. Davids
Opt. Express 25(14) 16130-16139 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. L. Lacaita, P. A. Francese, and S. D. Cova, “Single-photon optical-time-domain reflectometer at 1.3 μm with 5-cm resolution and high sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1110–1112 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).
  7. Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.
  10. K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).
  17. Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Gaussian pulse gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for single photon detection,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 606–608 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Gaussian pulse gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for single photon detection,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 606–608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

1984 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
[Crossref]

Acerbi, F.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Anan, T.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bethune, D. S.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boisvert, J. C.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cova, S. D.

David, J. P. R.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dimler, S. J.

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Entwistle, M.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Francese, P. A.

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goh, Y. L.

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Groom, K. M.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hatakeyama, H.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Hayat, M. M.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hopkinson, M.

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, D. A.

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

Isshiki, T. D.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Itlzer, M. A.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Jenkins, D.

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

Jian, Y.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Jones, S. K.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karve, G.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

King, R. J.

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

Kinsey, G. S.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krysa, A. B.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lacaita, A. L.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liew Tat Mun, S. C.

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y.

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

Makita, K.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Marhsall, A. R. J.

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Massey, D. J.

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mizuki, E.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Moseley, A. J.

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

Nakata, T.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ng, J. S.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ng, W. K.

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ong, D. S. G.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qian, Y. H.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, D. A.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rees, G. J.

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

Risk, W. P.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Robertson, M. J.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slomkowshi, K.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stefanov, H. Z. A.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sudharsanan, R.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Tan, C. H.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tan, L. J. J.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tomita, A.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Tores, S. N.

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Tsukuda, T.

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wallace, A. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Gaussian pulse gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for single photon detection,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 606–608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Warbuton, R. E.

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, E.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

You, S.

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

Zeng, H.

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Gaussian pulse gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for single photon detection,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 606–608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, K.

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Zhao, S. You, J. Cheng, and Y. Lo, “Self-quenching and self-recovering InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153504 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Ma, X. Li, G. Karve, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Analysis of breakdown probabilities in avalanche photodiodes using a history-dependent analytical model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(12), 1971–1973 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, “Near room temperature 1.3 μm single photon counting with a InGaAs avalanche photodiode,” Electron. Lett. 20(14), 596–597 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEE Electronic Lett. (1)

D. A. Humphreys, R. J. King, D. Jenkins, and A. J. Moseley, “Measurement of absorption coefficients of Ga0.47In0.53As over the wavelength range 1.0-1.7 μm,” IEE Electronic Lett. 21(25/26), 1188–1189 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

D. A. Ramirez, M. M. Hayat, G. Karve, J. C. Campbell, S. N. Tores, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 137–145 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. H. Qian, and J. P. R. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, S. J. Dimler, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, Y. L. Goh, and J. P. R. David, “A theoretical comparison of the breakdown behavior of In0.52Al0.48As and InP near-infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 566–571 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pellegrini, R. E. Warbuton, L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, A. B. Krysa, K. M. Groom, J. P. R. David, S. Cova, M. J. Robertson, and G. S. Buller, “Design and performance of an InGaAs-InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(4), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Karve, X. Zheng, X. Zhang, X. Li, S. Wang, F. Ma, A. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Boisvert, T. D. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, D. S. Bethune, and W. P. Risk, “Geiger mode of an In0.53Ga0.47As–In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1281–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liang, Y. Jian, X. Chen, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Room-temperature single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with multichannel counting ability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 115–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marhsall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, and S. K. Jones, “Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(1), 11–16 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

M. A. Itlzer, X. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowshi, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3–4), 173–200 (2011).

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, H. Z. A. Stefanov, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs-InP APDs,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(13), 1967–1981 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

T. Nakata, E. Mizuki, T. Tsukuda, S. Takahashi, H. Hatakeyama, T. Anan, K. Makita, and A. Tomita, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes for gated Geiger mode single photon counting,” in Proceeding of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 822–823.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure details of InGaAs/InAlAs SPAD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for dark counts and photon counts measurements. Solid lines and dashed lines represent electrical and optical connections, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reverse dark current and photocurrent (1550nm light) data of a 25 µm diameter InGaAs/InAlAs SPAD at 260 to 290 K. Dark current of a diode without p- bondpad at room temperature is also shown (circle).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) C-V data and fitting for a 100 µm diameter InGaAs/InAlAs SPAD. (b) Calculated electric field profiles at 26 and 30.5 V.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SPDE and (b) DCR versus DC bias (bottom horizontal axis) and overbias ratio (top horizontal axis) for the SPAD at 260 to 290 K. AC pulses with height of 6V and width of 1.2 ns were used.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 DCR of the SPAD versus voltage AC pulse repetition frequency at room temperature with 4.5 V overbias. No after-pulse problem was observed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 DCR vs SPDE results in this work compared with previous reports of InGaAs/InAlAs (closed symbols) and InGaAs/InP SPADs (open symbols).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S P D E = 1 N ln ( 1 P d 1 P t ) ,

Metrics