Abstract

In this study, we present optical simulation versus real fabricated device results in the micro-cavity red top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs). The optical simulation results indicate that the two kinds of possible emissive layer (EML) positions exist in the second order micro-cavity effect and each EMLs could emit the similar radiance with near National Television System Committee (NTSC) color coordinate. Expected current efficiency and external quantum efficiency by the optical simulation toward the surface normal in the red tandem TEOLED are 98.8 cd/A and 22.6% for two EMLs, while fabricated device shows 95.8 cd/A and 26.5%, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficient hole injection by doping of hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in hole transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 517(21), 6109–6111 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescencefrom a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

B. Y. Jung, N. Y. Kim, C. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, and C. Seoul, “Control of resonant wavelength from organic light-emitting materials by use of a Fabry-Perot microcavity structure,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3312–3318 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394–397 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Tokito, Y. Taga, and T. Tsutsui, “Strongly modified emission from organic electroluminescent device with a microcavity,” Synth. Met. 91(1–3), 49–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

P. Winsemius, F. F. van Kampen, H. P. Lengkeek, and C. G. van Went, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys. 6(8), 1583–1606 (1976).
[Crossref]

1899 (1)

C. Fabry and A. Perot, “Theorie et applications d'une nouvelle methode de spectroscopie interferentielle,” Ann. Chim. Phys. 16, 115 (1899).

Baik, S. H.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescencefrom a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. K.

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. W.

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. H.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. H.

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. C.

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chiang, H. H.

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

Cho, N. S.

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, T. Y.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabry, C.

C. Fabry and A. Perot, “Theorie et applications d'une nouvelle methode de spectroscopie interferentielle,” Ann. Chim. Phys. 16, 115 (1899).

Fan, Q.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
[Crossref]

Freitag, P.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
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Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
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S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
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J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
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C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
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C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
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C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
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S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
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Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
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S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
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L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544 (2001).
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S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
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Jeon, S. O.

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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
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Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
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H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
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Kim, Y. J.

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
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C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
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Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
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Lee, C. C.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
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C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficient hole injection by doping of hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in hole transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 517(21), 6109–6111 (2009).
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[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
[Crossref]

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C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
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C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
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C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
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S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
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Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
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L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544 (2001).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
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M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
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Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
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Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
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Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
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C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
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Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
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C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
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L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544 (2001).
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Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
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V. Bulovic, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature 380(6569), 29 (1996).
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S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
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Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tokito, Y. Taga, and T. Tsutsui, “Strongly modified emission from organic electroluminescent device with a microcavity,” Synth. Met. 91(1–3), 49–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Tokito, Y. Taga, and T. Tsutsui, “Strongly modified emission from organic electroluminescent device with a microcavity,” Synth. Met. 91(1–3), 49–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

van Kampen, F. F.

P. Winsemius, F. F. van Kampen, H. P. Lengkeek, and C. G. van Went, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys. 6(8), 1583–1606 (1976).
[Crossref]

van Went, C. G.

P. Winsemius, F. F. van Kampen, H. P. Lengkeek, and C. G. van Went, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys. 6(8), 1583–1606 (1976).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J. A. E.

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescencefrom a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wedge, S.

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescencefrom a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Winsemius, P.

P. Winsemius, F. F. van Kampen, H. P. Lengkeek, and C. G. van Went, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys. 6(8), 1583–1606 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111106 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. M.

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. J.

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. H.

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, Y. H.

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

Yook, K. S.

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficient hole injection by doping of hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in hole transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 517(21), 6109–6111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Kim, N. S. Cho, H. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(24), 2721–2726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Chim. Phys. (1)

C. Fabry and A. Perot, “Theorie et applications d'une nouvelle methode de spectroscopie interferentielle,” Ann. Chim. Phys. 16, 115 (1899).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Quantum efficiency enhancement in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes as a result of enhanced intrinsic quantum yield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Chiang, C. L. Lin, H. M. Wu, and C. C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5127 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, W. L. Barnes, and I. Sage, “Coupled surface plasmon-polariton mediated photoluminescencefrom a top-emitting organic light-emitting structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 182–184 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. L. Lin, P. Y. Hsieh, and H. H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 3966–3969 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. C. Liu, S. H. Liu, K. C. Tien, M. H. Hsu, H. W. Chang, C. K. Chang, C. J. Yang, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Cho, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity two-unit tandem organic light-emitting devices having a high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111106 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, C. L. Lin, C. C. Wu, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Cheng, Y. H. Kuo, and T. H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290 (2003).
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S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
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S. Tokito, T. Tsutsui, and Y. Taga, “Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2407 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Display Tech. (1)

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

Y. H. Son, Y. J. Kim, M. J. Park, H. Y. Oh, J. S. Park, J. H. Yang, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “Small single–triplet energy gap bipolar host materials for phosphorescent blue and white organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(33), 5008–5014 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. F Met. Phys. (1)

P. Winsemius, F. F. van Kampen, H. P. Lengkeek, and C. G. van Went, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys. 6(8), 1583–1606 (1976).
[Crossref]

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W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(5), 1022–1028 (2004).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Wu, J. Hou, Y. Cheng, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a V2O5 modified silver anode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 824–826 (2007).
[Crossref]

Synth. Met. (1)

S. Tokito, Y. Taga, and T. Tsutsui, “Strongly modified emission from organic electroluminescent device with a microcavity,” Synth. Met. 91(1–3), 49–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

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S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, H. H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, “Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 478(1–2), 271–274 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, “Efficient hole injection by doping of hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in hole transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 517(21), 6109–6111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Sim4tec GmbH., SimOLED, http://www.sim4tec.com .

H. –J. Hagemann, W. Gudat and C. Kunz, “Optical constants from the far infrared to the X-ray region: Mg, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Bi, C, and Al2O3,” Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron SR-74/7 (1974).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The refractive index and extinction coefficient values used in the optical simulation and (b) The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of Ir(mphmq)2(acac) used as a red emitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The simulation results of optical radiance depending on the thickness of HTL and ETL.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Current efficiency vs. luminance characteristics of red single EML TEOLEDs. (b) Emission spectra of fabricated single EML TEOLEDs compared with that of BEOLED. Inset: spectral widths of thick HTL vs. thick ETL TEOLEDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Current efficiency vs. luminescence characteristics of the red tandem TEOLED compared with that of BEOLED. (b) Emission spectrum of the fabricated tandem TEOLED compared with those of fabricated red single EML TEOLEDs. Inset: the CIE 1931 color.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Luminance vs. current density characteristics of red TEOLEDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The normalized radiance emission patterns of the fabricated red TEOLEDs. The dash lines and symbols indicate the calculated and experimental results, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Color coordinate changes along the viewing angle from 0 to 80 degrees of (a) thick HTL TEOLED, (b) thick ETL TEOLED and (c) Tandem TEOLED.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Characteristics of Thick HTL, Thick ETL and Tandem TEOLEDs at the Same Current Density of 4.17 mA/cm2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Device Characteristics of Fabricated Red and Green TEOLEDs with Second Order Micro-Cavity Effect

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| I e x t ( λ ) | 2 = T t o p j [ 1 + R b o t t o m + 2 R b o t t o m cos ( Δ T B I ) ] 1 + R t o p R b o t t o m 2 R t o p R b o t t o m sin 2 ( Δ F P 2 ) | I int ( λ ) | 2
Δ F P = ϕ t o p + ϕ b o t t o m 4 π i n i d i cos θ λ
Δ T B I = ϕ b o t t o m 4 π j n j z j cos θ λ
G int = S( λ ) G cav ( λ )dλ / S( λ ) G con ( λ )dλ
G int = C E TOP / C E BOTTOM
EQE( % )= qλA S( λ,θ ) dλdθ hcl ×100

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