Abstract

We report the first complete 10G silicon photonic ring modulator with integrated ultra-efficient CMOS driver and closed-loop wavelength control. A selective substrate removal technique was used to improve the ring tuning efficiency. Limited by the thermal tuner driver output power, a maximum open-loop tuning range of about 4.5nm was measured with about 14mW of total tuning power including the heater driver circuit power consumption. Stable wavelength locking was achieved with a low-power mixed-signal closed-loop wavelength controller. An active wavelength tracking range of > 500GHz was demonstrated with controller energy cost of only 20fJ/bit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” 9th Group IV Photonics, pp.1–3 PDP, 2012.
  2. E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators at 25Gb/s,” in Proceedings of OFC, OTh3H.2, 2013.
  3. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “60 Gbit/s silicon modulators with enhanced electro-optical efficiency,” in Proceedings of OFC, OW4J.3, 2013.
  4. X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).
  5. C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5143–5148 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.
  9. J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conf., pp. 52–53, 2013.
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Amberg, E. Chang, F. Liu, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and R. Ho, “A sub-400 fJ/bit thermal tuner for optical resonant ring modulators in 40nm CMOS,” IEEE A-SSCC, pp.29–32, 2012.
  11. F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Leaxu, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp.290–291, 2011.

2013 (3)

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Ackert, J. J.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Amberg, P.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Chang, E.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conf., pp. 52–53, 2013.
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Knights, A. P.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Lee, J.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Lentine, A. L.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Li, G.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Li, Z.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Logan, D. F.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Padmaraju, K.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Qiu, C.

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Shu, J.

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Starbuck, A. L.

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conf., pp. 52–53, 2013.
[Crossref]

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conf., pp. 52–53, 2013.
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Zhang, X.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Zhu, X.

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Micro (1)

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Bit error monitoring for active wavelength control of silicon microphotonic resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

OFC, PD (1)

X. Zheng, E. Chang, I. Shubin, G. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yao, H. Thacker, J. Lee, J. Lexau, F. Liu, P. Amberg, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A 33mW 100Gbps CMOS silicon photonic WDM transmitter using off-chip laser sources,” OFC, PD 9, 5C (2013).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (7)

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” 9th Group IV Photonics, pp.1–3 PDP, 2012.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators at 25Gb/s,” in Proceedings of OFC, OTh3H.2, 2013.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “60 Gbit/s silicon modulators with enhanced electro-optical efficiency,” in Proceedings of OFC, OW4J.3, 2013.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

J. A. Cox, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conf., pp. 52–53, 2013.
[Crossref]

P. Amberg, E. Chang, F. Liu, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and R. Ho, “A sub-400 fJ/bit thermal tuner for optical resonant ring modulators in 40nm CMOS,” IEEE A-SSCC, pp.29–32, 2012.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Leaxu, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp.290–291, 2011.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A complete Si ring modulator with closed-loop wavelength control.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A picture of the hybrid integrated chip assembly die-attached and wire bonded on a test PCB. (b) A picture of the test setup for a closed-loop controlled ring modulator. (c) Measured open-loop ring tuning efficiency including the heater driver power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 10G eye diagrams at a different wavelength showing the wavelength tracking of a closed-loop controlled ring modulator.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured ring modulator performance with thermal crosstalk from neighboring channels (a) and long-term (>24 hours) ambient temperature change (b).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the Circuit Power Consumption and Area of Different Components.

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