Abstract

As a promising solution for the next generation optical Internet, optical burst switching still has much to be improved, especially the design of core routers. This paper mainly focuses on channel scheduling algorithms of core routers and proposes a new practical scheduling algorithm. In the new algorithm, burst segmentation, one of the contention resolution schemes that are another major concern in core router design, is introduced. The proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically and evaluated by computer simulations. The results show that the new algorithm, compared with existing traditional scheduling algorithms, can lower the packet loss probability and enhance the link utilization and network performance.

©2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.
  3. Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.
  4. V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.
  5. Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Burst segmentation: an Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 4, 81–89 (Nov./Dec. 2003).
  6. M. Neuts, H. L. Vu, and M. Zukerman, “Insight into the benefit of burst segmentation in optical burst switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Internet and Photonics in Switching (Cheju Island, Korea, July 2002), 126–128.
  7. Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Prioritized burst segmentation and composite burst assembly techniques for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21, 1198–1209 (Sep. 2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.
  9. Some parts of this paper have appeared in APOC’03 (Asian Pacific Optical Conference, 2003) with EI access No. 04278246336

2003 (4)

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Burst segmentation: an Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 4, 81–89 (Nov./Dec. 2003).

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Prioritized burst segmentation and composite burst assembly techniques for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21, 1198–1209 (Sep. 2003).
[Crossref]

Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.

2002 (2)

V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.

M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.

2000 (1)

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
[Crossref]

Cankaya, H.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
[Crossref]

Challagulla, Venkata U. B.

Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.

Iizuka, M.

M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.

Jue, J.P.

V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.

Jue, Jason

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Prioritized burst segmentation and composite burst assembly techniques for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21, 1198–1209 (Sep. 2003).
[Crossref]

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Burst segmentation: an Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 4, 81–89 (Nov./Dec. 2003).

Li, J.

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Neuts, M.

M. Neuts, H. L. Vu, and M. Zukerman, “Insight into the benefit of burst segmentation in optical burst switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Internet and Photonics in Switching (Cheju Island, Korea, July 2002), 126–128.

Qiao, C.

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Sakuta, M.

M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.

Sitaraman, S.

V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.

Thodime, Guru P. V.

Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.

Vandenhoute, M.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
[Crossref]

Vokkarane, V.

V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.

Vokkarane, Vinod

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Prioritized burst segmentation and composite burst assembly techniques for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21, 1198–1209 (Sep. 2003).
[Crossref]

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Burst segmentation: an Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 4, 81–89 (Nov./Dec. 2003).

Vokkarane, Vinod M.

Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.

Vu, H. L.

M. Neuts, H. L. Vu, and M. Zukerman, “Insight into the benefit of burst segmentation in optical burst switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Internet and Photonics in Switching (Cheju Island, Korea, July 2002), 126–128.

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Xu, Jinhui

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Yoshiyuki,

M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.

Zukerman, M.

M. Neuts, H. L. Vu, and M. Zukerman, “Insight into the benefit of burst segmentation in optical burst switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Internet and Photonics in Switching (Cheju Island, Korea, July 2002), 126–128.

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (2)

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. Cankaya, “Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM network,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18, 1838–1851 (Oct. 2000).
[Crossref]

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Prioritized burst segmentation and composite burst assembly techniques for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21, 1198–1209 (Sep. 2003).
[Crossref]

in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (1)

M. Iizuka, M. Sakuta, and Yoshiyuki, “A Scheduling algorithm minimizing voids generated by arriving bursts in optical burst switched WDM network,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (Nov. 2002),  3, 2736–2740.

in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (2)

V. Vokkarane, J.P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, “Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May. 2002),  5, 2673–2677.

Vinod M. Vokkarane, Guru P. V. Thodime, and Venkata U. B. Challagulla, et. al, “Channel Scheduling Algorithms using Burst Segmentation and FDLs for Optical Burst-Switched Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC (May 2003),  2, 1443–1447.

in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (1)

Jinhui Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (Mar. 2003),  3, 2268–2278.

Optical Networks Magazine (1)

Vinod Vokkarane and Jason Jue, “Burst segmentation: an Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 4, 81–89 (Nov./Dec. 2003).

Other (2)

M. Neuts, H. L. Vu, and M. Zukerman, “Insight into the benefit of burst segmentation in optical burst switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Internet and Photonics in Switching (Cheju Island, Korea, July 2002), 126–128.

Some parts of this paper have appeared in APOC’03 (Asian Pacific Optical Conference, 2003) with EI access No. 04278246336

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Two approaches of traditional burst segmentation
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Illustration of the proposed scheduling algorithm
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a typical optical switch matrix in the core router
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Burst number in system versus time
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Packet loss probability versus traffic load, with wavelengths K=8 and Burst Length L=100 µs
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Packet loss probabilities versus traffic load with K=16 and different burst lengths

Equations (37)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E [ t 0 ]
= E { E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) ] }
= P { Y ( Δ t ) = 0 } · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = 0 ] + P { Y ( Δt ) = 1 } · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = 1 ]
+ P { Y ( Δ t ) > 1 } · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) > 1 ]
= P 0 , 0 ( Δ t ) · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = 0 ] + P 0 , 1 ( Δ t ) · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = 1 ]
+ i = 2 k P 0 , i ( Δ t ) · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = i ]
= P 0 , 0 ( Δ t ) · E [ t 0 Y ( Δ t ) = 0 ] + P 0 , 1 ( Δ t ) · E [ t 0 Y ( Δt ) = 1 ] + o ( Δ t )
T 0 = P 0 , 0 ( Δ t ) · ( T 0 + Δ t ) + P 0 , 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T 1 + Δ t ) + o ( Δ t )
T 1 = P 1 , 0 ( Δ t ) · ( T 0 + Δ t ) + P 1 , 1 ( Δ t ) ( T 1 + Δ t ) + P 1 , 2 ( Δ t ) · ( T 2 + Δ t ) + o ( Δ t )
T 2 = P 2 , 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T 1 + Δ t ) + P 2 , 2 ( Δ t ) · ( T 2 + Δ t ) + P 2 , 3 ( Δ t ) · ( T 3 + Δ t ) + o ( Δ t )
T j = P j , j 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T j 1 + Δ t ) + P j , j ( Δ t ) · ( T j + Δ t ) + P j , j + 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T j + 1 + Δ t ) + o ( Δ t )
T k 1 = P k 1 , k 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T k 1 + Δ t ) + P k 1 , k 1 ( Δ t ) · ( T k 1 + Δ t ) + P k 1 , k ( Δ t ) · ( T k + Δ t ) + o ( Δ t )
T k = 0
T 0 = ( 1 λ Δ t ) · ( T 0 + Δ t ) + λ Δ t · ( T 1 + Δ t )
T 1 = μ · ( Δ t ) · ( T 0 + Δ t ) + ( 1 λ Δ t μ Δ t ) · ( T 1 + Δ t ) + λ Δ t · ( T 2 + Δ t )
T 2 = 2 μ · ( Δ t ) · ( T 1 + Δ t ) + ( 1 λ Δ t 2 μ Δ t ) · ( T 2 + Δ t ) + λ Δ t · ( T 3 + Δ t )
T j = j μ · ( Δ t ) · ( T j 1 + Δ t ) + ( 1 λ Δ t j μ Δ t ) · ( T 1 + Δ t ) + λ Δ t · ( T j + 1 + Δ t )
T k 1 = ( k 1 ) μ · ( Δ t ) · ( T k 2 + Δ t ) + [ 1 ( k 1 ) μ Δ t λ Δ t ] · ( T k 1 + Δ t ) + λ Δ t · ( T k + Δ t )
T k = 0
1 λ = T 0 T 1
T 0 T 1 = ρ · ( T 1 T 2 ) 1 μ
T 1 T 2 = ρ 2 · ( T 2 T 3 ) 1 2 μ
T 2 T 3 = ρ 3 · ( T 3 T 4 ) 1 3 μ
T j 1 T j = ρ j · ( T j T j + 1 ) 1 j μ
T k 3 T k 2 = ρ k 2 · ( T k 2 T k 1 ) 1 ( k 2 ) μ
T k 2 T k 1 = ρ k 1 · T k 1 1 ( k 1 ) μ
T k 1 = ( k 1 ) ! · ( 1 + ρ + ρ 2 2 + ρ 3 3 ! + + ρ k 1 ( k 1 ) ! ) ( λ · ρ k 1 )
L j = { 0 , T j L b L b T j , T j < L b ( 0 j k )
P loss
= { P { n = k } · L b + i = 0 k 1 P { n = i } · P { segmentation n = i } · L j } L b
= ρ k k ! j = 0 k ( ρ i ρ j ! ) + i = 0 k 1 ρ i i ! j = 0 k ( ρ i j ! ) · P ( k i ) { T o 2 T o 1 + τ 12 } · ( ρ k + ρ ) ( k i ) · L j L b

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