Abstract

The stroboscopic visibility measure (SVM) is a method used to quantify the stroboscopic effect visibility in general illumination application. SVM has been defined previously based on a limited number of frequencies and participants. To validate and extend SVM, five perception experiments are presented, measuring the visibility threshold of light waveforms modulated at several frequencies, conducted in two different labs. A power function is fitted through the aggregated results to develop a stroboscopic effect contrast threshold function for a “standard observer,” which can be used to normalize SVM. An additional experiment shows the dependency on illumination level, extending the validity of SVM to other applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (1)

J. D. Bullough and D. Marcus, “Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,” Light. Res. Technol. 48, 857–870 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Perz, I. M. L. C. Vogels, D. Sekulovski, L. Wang, Y. Tu, and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Modeling the visibility of the stroboscopic effect occurring in temporally modulated light systems,” Light. Res. Technol. 47, 281–300 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review-potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. G. M. Stokkermans and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Temporal dark adaptation to spatially complex backgrounds: effect of an additional light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 1485–1494 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. L. Long and M. Srinivasan, “Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk-run–rest mixtures,” J. R. Soc. Interface 10, 20120980 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Branas, F. J. Azcondo, and J. M. Alonso, “Solid-state lighting: a system review,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 7(4), 6–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika 53, 156–172 (2012).

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, and N. Narendran, “Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 337–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kowler, “Eye movements: the past 25 years,” Vision Res. 51, 1457–1483 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. E. Bedell, J. Tong, and M. Aydin, “The perception of motion smear during eye and head movements,” Vision Res. 50, 2692–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Hornsteiner and J. Detlefsen, “Characterisation of human gait using a continuous-wave radar at 24 GHz,” Adv. Radio Sci. 6, 67–70 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. B. Bagesteiro and R. L. Sainburg, “Handedness: dominant arm advantages in control of limb dynamics,” J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2408–2421 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Kaernbach, “Adaptive threshold estimation with unforced-choice tasks,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 63, 1377–1388 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

J. L. Hintze and R. D. Nelson, “Violin plots: a box plot-density trace synergism,” Amer. Statist. 52, 181–184 (1998).

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. A. Hershberger and J. S. Jordan, “The phantom array: a perisaccadic illusion of visual direction,” Psychol. Rec. 48, 21–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. S. Rea and M. Ouellette, “Table-tennis under high intensity discharge (HID) lighting,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 17, 29–35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. H. Hogben and V. Di Lollo, “Suppression of visible persistence in apparent motion,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 38, 450–460 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

N. Ginsburg, M. Jurenovskis, and J. Jamieson, “Sex differences in critical flicker frequency,” Percept. Mot. Skills 54, 1079–1082 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. C. Burr, “Temporal summation of moving images by the human visual system,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 211, 321–339 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. L. Hawkins and G. L. Shulman, “Two definitions of persistence in visual perception,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 25, 348–350 (1979).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. P. Frier and A. Henderson, “Stroboscopic effect of high intensity discharge lamps,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 3, 83–86 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. M. Rose, D. Y. Teller, and P. Rendleman, “Statistical properties of staircase estimates,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 8, 199–204 (1970).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase-method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

1954 (1)

C. M. Colgan, “Critical flicker frequency, age, and intelligence,” Am. J. Psychol. 67, 711–713 (1954).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

A. A. Eastman and J. H. Campbell, “Stroboscopic and flicker effects from fluorescent lamps,” Illum. Eng. 47, 27–35 (1952).

Alonso, J. M.

C. Branas, F. J. Azcondo, and J. M. Alonso, “Solid-state lighting: a system review,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 7(4), 6–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arias, M.

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika 53, 156–172 (2012).

Aydin, M.

H. E. Bedell, J. Tong, and M. Aydin, “The perception of motion smear during eye and head movements,” Vision Res. 50, 2692–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Azcondo, F. J.

C. Branas, F. J. Azcondo, and J. M. Alonso, “Solid-state lighting: a system review,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 7(4), 6–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bagesteiro, L. B.

L. B. Bagesteiro and R. L. Sainburg, “Handedness: dominant arm advantages in control of limb dynamics,” J. Neurophysiol. 88, 2408–2421 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, Contrast Sensitivity of the Human Eye and its Effects on Image Quality (SPIE, 1999), Vol. 72.

Bedell, H. E.

H. E. Bedell, J. Tong, and M. Aydin, “The perception of motion smear during eye and head movements,” Vision Res. 50, 2692–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Branas, C.

C. Branas, F. J. Azcondo, and J. M. Alonso, “Solid-state lighting: a system review,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 7(4), 6–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bullough, J. D.

J. D. Bullough and D. Marcus, “Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,” Light. Res. Technol. 48, 857–870 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, and N. Narendran, “Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 337–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burr, D. C.

D. C. Burr, “Temporal summation of moving images by the human visual system,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 211, 321–339 (1981).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. H.

A. A. Eastman and J. H. Campbell, “Stroboscopic and flicker effects from fluorescent lamps,” Illum. Eng. 47, 27–35 (1952).

Chang, M.-H.

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Colgan, C. M.

C. M. Colgan, “Critical flicker frequency, age, and intelligence,” Am. J. Psychol. 67, 711–713 (1954).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase-method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[Crossref]

Das, D.

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Almeida, A.

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review-potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Detlefsen, J.

C. Hornsteiner and J. Detlefsen, “Characterisation of human gait using a continuous-wave radar at 24 GHz,” Adv. Radio Sci. 6, 67–70 (2008).
[Crossref]

Di Lollo, V.

J. H. Hogben and V. Di Lollo, “Suppression of visible persistence in apparent motion,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 38, 450–460 (1985).
[Crossref]

Eastman, A. A.

A. A. Eastman and J. H. Campbell, “Stroboscopic and flicker effects from fluorescent lamps,” Illum. Eng. 47, 27–35 (1952).

Frier, J. P.

J. P. Frier and A. Henderson, “Stroboscopic effect of high intensity discharge lamps,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 3, 83–86 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gibet, S.

S. Gibet and P.-F. Marteau, “Approximation of curvature and velocity for gesture segmentation and synthesis,” in International Gesture Workshop (Springer, 2007), pp. 13–23.

Ginsburg, N.

N. Ginsburg, M. Jurenovskis, and J. Jamieson, “Sex differences in critical flicker frequency,” Percept. Mot. Skills 54, 1079–1082 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, H. L.

H. L. Hawkins and G. L. Shulman, “Two definitions of persistence in visual perception,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 25, 348–350 (1979).
[Crossref]

Henderson, A.

J. P. Frier and A. Henderson, “Stroboscopic effect of high intensity discharge lamps,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 3, 83–86 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hershberger, W. A.

W. A. Hershberger and J. S. Jordan, “The phantom array: a perisaccadic illusion of visual direction,” Psychol. Rec. 48, 21–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

Heynderickx, I. E. J.

M. Perz, I. M. L. C. Vogels, D. Sekulovski, L. Wang, Y. Tu, and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Modeling the visibility of the stroboscopic effect occurring in temporally modulated light systems,” Light. Res. Technol. 47, 281–300 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. M. Stokkermans and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Temporal dark adaptation to spatially complex backgrounds: effect of an additional light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 1485–1494 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. Tu, J. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Liu, I. M. L. C. Vogels, M. Perz, and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Influence of illumination level on the visibility of the stroboscopic effect,” in 7th Lighting Conference of China, Japan and Korea (CJK, 2014).

Hickcox, K. S.

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, and N. Narendran, “Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 337–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hintze, J. L.

J. L. Hintze and R. D. Nelson, “Violin plots: a box plot-density trace synergism,” Amer. Statist. 52, 181–184 (1998).

Hogben, J. H.

J. H. Hogben and V. Di Lollo, “Suppression of visible persistence in apparent motion,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 38, 450–460 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hornsteiner, C.

C. Hornsteiner and J. Detlefsen, “Characterisation of human gait using a continuous-wave radar at 24 GHz,” Adv. Radio Sci. 6, 67–70 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jamieson, J.

N. Ginsburg, M. Jurenovskis, and J. Jamieson, “Sex differences in critical flicker frequency,” Percept. Mot. Skills 54, 1079–1082 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jordan, J. S.

W. A. Hershberger and J. S. Jordan, “The phantom array: a perisaccadic illusion of visual direction,” Psychol. Rec. 48, 21–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jurenovskis, M.

N. Ginsburg, M. Jurenovskis, and J. Jamieson, “Sex differences in critical flicker frequency,” Percept. Mot. Skills 54, 1079–1082 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kaernbach, C.

C. Kaernbach, “Adaptive threshold estimation with unforced-choice tasks,” Atten. Percept. Psycho. 63, 1377–1388 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kelly, D. H.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kingdom, F. A. A.

F. A. A. Kingdom and N. Prins, Psychophysics: A Practical Introduction (Academic, 2016).

Klein, T. R.

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, and N. Narendran, “Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 337–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kowler, E.

E. Kowler, “Eye movements: the past 25 years,” Vision Res. 51, 1457–1483 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lagarias, J. C.

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, and P. E. Wright, “Convergence properties of the Nelder–Mead simplex method in low dimensions,” SIAM J. Optim. 9, 112–147 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lehman, B.

D. Rand, B. Lehman, and A. Shteynberg, “Issues, models and solutions for triac modulated phase dimming of LED lamps,” in Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1398–1404.

Levitt, H.

H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477 (1971).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Y. Tu, L. Wang, J. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Liu, M. Perz, and I. M. L. C. Vogels, “Cross-cultural similarities in the visibility of the stroboscopic effect,” in 10th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting (ChinaSSL) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 170–173.

L. Wang, Y. Tu, J. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Liu, I. M. L. C. Vogels, M. Perz, and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Influence of illumination level on the visibility of the stroboscopic effect,” in 7th Lighting Conference of China, Japan and Korea (CJK, 2014).

Lok, A.

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

Long, L. L.

L. L. Long and M. Srinivasan, “Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk-run–rest mixtures,” J. R. Soc. Interface 10, 20120980 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

Y. Tu, L. Wang, J. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Liu, M. Perz, and I. M. L. C. Vogels, “Cross-cultural similarities in the visibility of the stroboscopic effect,” in 10th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting (ChinaSSL) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 170–173.

L. Wang, Y. Tu, J. Zhang, F. Lu, L. Liu, I. M. L. C. Vogels, M. Perz, and I. E. J. Heynderickx, “Influence of illumination level on the visibility of the stroboscopic effect,” in 7th Lighting Conference of China, Japan and Korea (CJK, 2014).

Marcus, D.

J. D. Bullough and D. Marcus, “Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,” Light. Res. Technol. 48, 857–870 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marteau, P.-F.

S. Gibet and P.-F. Marteau, “Approximation of curvature and velocity for gesture segmentation and synthesis,” in International Gesture Workshop (Springer, 2007), pp. 13–23.

Narendran, N.

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, A. Lok, and N. Narendran, “Detection and acceptability of stroboscopic effects from flicker,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 477–483 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bullough, K. S. Hickcox, T. R. Klein, and N. Narendran, “Effects of flicker characteristics from solid-state lighting on detection, acceptability and comfort,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 337–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nelson, R. D.

J. L. Hintze and R. D. Nelson, “Violin plots: a box plot-density trace synergism,” Amer. Statist. 52, 181–184 (1998).

Ouellette, M.

M. S. Rea and M. Ouellette, “Table-tennis under high intensity discharge (HID) lighting,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 17, 29–35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Paolo, B.

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I. M. L. C. Vogels, D. Sekulovski, and M. Perz, “Visible artefacts of LEDs,” in 27th Session of the CIE, Sun City, South Africa (CIE, 2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illuminance (lux) as a function of time (s) for three commercially available LED sources, using different driver topologies.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Picture of the setup used in the experiments, (b) an impression of the appearance of the rotating disk under constant light with no modulation, giving rise to the perception of a blurred image, and (c) the rotating disk under modulated light, resulting in a visible stroboscopic effect.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Violin plots of the visibility thresholds, expressed as modulation depth, as a function of modulation frequency, measured in experiment 1; the mean and median values are depicted as solid and dotted lines, respectively; the borders of the dark shaded areas mark the 25th and 75th percentiles; and the error bars correspond to the 95% CI of the mean.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Violin plots of the visibility thresholds, expressed as modulation depth, as a function of modulation frequency, measured in (a), (b) experiment 2, (c) experiment 3, and (d) experiment 4. The mean and median threshold values are depicted as solid and dotted lines, respectively. The borders of the darker shaded areas mark the 25th and 75th percentiles. The error bars correspond to the 95% CI of the mean.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Mean probability of the stroboscopic effect detection as a function of frequency of periodic pulse waveforms. The solid line depicts predicted detection values computed for the generalized linear model with probit link function. The star depicts the visibility threshold at a frequency of 1110 Hz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Log–log plot of the median visibility threshold expressed in terms of the amplitude of Fourier fundamental, combined over experiments 1 to 4, and averaged across participants per frequency, in (a) per experiment, and in (b) over all four experiments. The solid line corresponds to the power function, as defined in Eq. (2). The black dot depicts the highest frequency at which the stroboscopic effect can be detected.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Violin plots of visibility thresholds, expressed in modulation depth, for (a) a sinusoidal waveform at 100 Hz measured at different illumination levels, and (b) a sinusoidal waveform with a horizontal illumination of 50 lux at the task surface measured at different frequencies. The mean and median threshold values are depicted as solid and dotted lines, respectively. The borders of the darker shaded areas mark the 25th and 75th percentiles. The error bars correspond to the 95% CI of the mean.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of the visibility of the stroboscopic effect for different illumination levels at the task surface; the solid line shows the contrast threshold function, defined in Eq. (2), obtained for an illumination level of 500 lux, whereas the dots correspond to mean visibility threshold measured at four frequencies for an illumination level of 50 lux. The error bars correspond to the 95% CI of the mean.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SVM = m = 1 ( C m T m ) 3.7 3.7 { < 1 not visible = 1 just visible > 1 visible ,
T ( f ) = 2.865 * 10 5 * f 1.543 + 0.225 .

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