Abstract

Bessel beams have been increasingly used for their advantages of non-diffraction and long focal depth. In this paper, we studied the propagation of on-axis and off-axis Bessel beams in a gradient-index medium. By expressing a Bessel beam in integral form, the analytical expression of an on-axis, decentered, and tilted Bessel beam through a paraxial optical system is derived with the ABCD matrix method and Collins diffraction integral formula. Main lobe size and trajectory of the zeroth- and second-order Bessel beam are obtained, demonstrating that the Bessel beam is focused by the gradient-index medium and its main lobe trajectory is exactly the same as the corresponding geometrical ray for both the decentered and tilted Bessel beam. Effects of beam apodization are finally studied by the Fourier beam propagation method, showing that the side lobes of the Bessel beam vanish when the beam is focused inside the medium as only part of the beam enters the lens.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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