Abstract

The investigation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensionally inhomogeneous media leads to an approximation that decouples Maxwell’s equations. The two equations obtained for the longitudinal field components are free from the inconsistencies of the scalar wave approximation. For cylindrically symmetric media the resulting radial equations are basically equivalent to those already derived by Kurtz and Streifer, but a more refined WKB-type approximation of the solutions, using the “method of comparison equations,” leads to the result that all guided modes are split with respect to scalar propagation constants. Calculations carried out for quadratic media indicate that this splitting does not decrease with frequency in the way predicted by previous treatments, using first-order perturbation. The present theory is equally valid for scattered modes, for which an approximate phase shift formula is provided.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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