The basic theory behind the measurement of axial and off-axis aberrations of micro-objectives tested by a new micro-objective testing interferometer, based on an apparatus developed earlier by Kingslake, has been described from the point of view of wave aberrations and the interference theory. Since the formation of optical image is principally guided by the wave shape of the transmitted light, an effort has been made to correlate systematically the treatment given by Kingslake, who looked at the subject from geometric point of view, and those of Chalmers and Gardner and Bennett, who concentrated their attention on the measurement of axial optical-path differences. It has been shown how the axial and off-axis wave-aberration curves for the objective can be determined from the measured fringe shift at the chosen focal plane. The method of analyzing the different aberration components has also been indicated, and an example has been added to show the actual curves in a particular case.
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