Diffuse illumination was used to stimulate the in-place frog eye. The intact, essentially intact, and opened-eye preparations were used. With the intact eye, the ERG was detected by a ventrodorsal, craniodorsal, or caudodorsal electrode placement on the skin around the eye, but not by a craniocaudal, ventrocranial, or caudoventral placement. An asymmetrical electrode placement on the cornea, or placement of the reference on the cornea and probe on the skin or on an injured corneal section, also detected the ERG. In the opened eye, only the ERG was detected with reference on the retina’s vitreous side. With the reference on the cornea, the EIRG was seen. In the essentially intact eye, with the probe entering from the choroidal side, only the ERG was observed with either a corneal or a choroidal reference. Two hypotheses were advanced. The first was the presence of an insulating layer, probably Bruch’s membrane, in most of the eye except for the cornea which is insulated by Bowman’s membrane. The second was that the EIRG is a complex waveform resulting from the ERG’s entering both the probe and reference electrodes and summing algebraically if the insulating layer just mentioned were sufficiently disturbed.
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