Abstract

Cell manipulation is one of the most impactful applications for optical tweezers, and derived from this promise, we demonstrate a new optical tweezers system for the study of cell adhesion and organization. This method utilizes photonic-crystal-enhanced optical tweezers to manipulate cells with low laser intensities. By doing so, it enables effective cell patterning and culturing within the conditions necessary for successful differentiation and colony formation of human pluripotent stem cells. To this end, the biocompatibility of plasma-treated parylene-C for cell culturing was studied, and a thorough characterization of cellular interactive forces was performed using this system. Furthermore, this study also demonstrates construction of patterned cell arrays at arbitrary positions with micrometer-scale precision.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2016 (1)

P. Jing, J. Wu, G. W. Liu, E. G. Keeler, S. H. Pun, and L. Y. Lin, “Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19924 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Jing, J. D. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, “Patterned Optical Trapping with Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 398–402 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

U. Mirsaidov, W. Timp, K. Timp, M. Mir, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 1), 021910 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Helenius, C. P. Heisenberg, H. E. Gaub, and D. J. Muller, “Single-cell force spectroscopy,” J. Cell Sci. 121(11), 1785–1791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prass, K. Jacobson, A. Mogilner, and M. Radmacher, “Direct measurement of the lamellipodial protrusive force in a migrating cell,” J. Cell Biol. 174(6), 767–772 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3314–3329 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Litvinov, H. Shuman, J. S. Bennett, and J. W. Weisel, “Binding strength and activation state of single fibrinogen-integrin pairs on living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(11), 7426–7431 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

O. Thoumine, P. Kocian, A. Kottelat, and J. J. Meister, “Short-term binding of fibroblasts to fibronectin: optical tweezers experiments and probabilistic analysis,” Eur. Biophys. J. 29(6), 398–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Reiser, W. Kriz, M. Kretzler, and P. Mundel, “The glomerular slit diaphragm is a modified adherens junction,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(1), 1–8 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. Kloboucek, A. Behrisch, J. Faix, and E. Sackmann, “Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2311–2328 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Evans, K. Ritchie, and R. Merkel, “Sensitive force technique to probe molecular adhesion and structural linkages at biological interfaces,” Biophys. J. 68(6), 2580–2587 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Eastwood, D. A. McGrouther, and R. A. Brown, “A culture force monitor for measurement of contraction forces generated in human dermal fibroblast cultures: evidence for cell-matrix mechanical signalling,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1201(2), 186–192 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

W. Reeves, J. P. Caulfield, and M. G. Farquhar, “Differentiation of epithelial foot processes and filtration slits: sequential appearance of occluding junctions, epithelial polyanion, and slit membranes in developing glomeruli,” Lab. Invest. 39(2), 90–100 (1978).
[PubMed]

Abassi, Y.

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addadi, L.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atienza, J. M.

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaban, N. Q.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartram, M. P.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrisch, A.

A. Kloboucek, A. Behrisch, J. Faix, and E. Sackmann, “Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2311–2328 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. S.

R. I. Litvinov, H. Shuman, J. S. Bennett, and J. W. Weisel, “Binding strength and activation state of single fibrinogen-integrin pairs on living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(11), 7426–7431 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benzing, T.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bershadsky, A.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branczyk, A. M.

T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brivanlou, A. H.

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, R. A.

M. Eastwood, D. A. McGrouther, and R. A. Brown, “A culture force monitor for measurement of contraction forces generated in human dermal fibroblast cultures: evidence for cell-matrix mechanical signalling,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1201(2), 186–192 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, Z.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardoso, O.

O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caulfield, J. P.

W. Reeves, J. P. Caulfield, and M. G. Farquhar, “Differentiation of epithelial foot processes and filtration slits: sequential appearance of occluding junctions, epithelial polyanion, and slit membranes in developing glomeruli,” Lab. Invest. 39(2), 90–100 (1978).
[PubMed]

Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conklin, B. R.

Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Croquette, V.

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3314–3329 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leo, S.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinno, M.

Dokmeci, M. R.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastwood, M.

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M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
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P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
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J. Reiser, W. Kriz, M. Kretzler, and P. Mundel, “The glomerular slit diaphragm is a modified adherens junction,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(1), 1–8 (2000).
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Lin, L. Y.

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K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
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Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
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M. Eastwood, D. A. McGrouther, and R. A. Brown, “A culture force monitor for measurement of contraction forces generated in human dermal fibroblast cultures: evidence for cell-matrix mechanical signalling,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1201(2), 186–192 (1994).
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O. Thoumine, P. Kocian, A. Kottelat, and J. J. Meister, “Short-term binding of fibroblasts to fibronectin: optical tweezers experiments and probabilistic analysis,” Eur. Biophys. J. 29(6), 398–408 (2000).
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O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
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E. Evans, K. Ritchie, and R. Merkel, “Sensitive force technique to probe molecular adhesion and structural linkages at biological interfaces,” Biophys. J. 68(6), 2580–2587 (1995).
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M. Prass, K. Jacobson, A. Mogilner, and M. Radmacher, “Direct measurement of the lamellipodial protrusive force in a migrating cell,” J. Cell Biol. 174(6), 767–772 (2006).
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T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
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B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
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J. Helenius, C. P. Heisenberg, H. E. Gaub, and D. J. Muller, “Single-cell force spectroscopy,” J. Cell Sci. 121(11), 1785–1791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
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Mundel, P.

J. Reiser, W. Kriz, M. Kretzler, and P. Mundel, “The glomerular slit diaphragm is a modified adherens junction,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(1), 1–8 (2000).
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K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
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K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
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B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
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T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
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K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
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O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Prass, K. Jacobson, A. Mogilner, and M. Radmacher, “Direct measurement of the lamellipodial protrusive force in a migrating cell,” J. Cell Biol. 174(6), 767–772 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pun, S. H.

P. Jing, J. Wu, G. W. Liu, E. G. Keeler, S. H. Pun, and L. Y. Lin, “Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19924 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Prass, K. Jacobson, A. Mogilner, and M. Radmacher, “Direct measurement of the lamellipodial protrusive force in a migrating cell,” J. Cell Biol. 174(6), 767–772 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
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W. Reeves, J. P. Caulfield, and M. G. Farquhar, “Differentiation of epithelial foot processes and filtration slits: sequential appearance of occluding junctions, epithelial polyanion, and slit membranes in developing glomeruli,” Lab. Invest. 39(2), 90–100 (1978).
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B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Reiser, W. Kriz, M. Kretzler, and P. Mundel, “The glomerular slit diaphragm is a modified adherens junction,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(1), 1–8 (2000).
[PubMed]

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M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[Crossref]

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E. Evans, K. Ritchie, and R. Merkel, “Sensitive force technique to probe molecular adhesion and structural linkages at biological interfaces,” Biophys. J. 68(6), 2580–2587 (1995).
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N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
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T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sabanay, I.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sackmann, E.

A. Kloboucek, A. Behrisch, J. Faix, and E. Sackmann, “Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2311–2328 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Safran, S.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schermer, B.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, U. S.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvarasah, S.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, S. S.

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuman, H.

R. I. Litvinov, H. Shuman, J. S. Bennett, and J. W. Weisel, “Binding strength and activation state of single fibrinogen-integrin pairs on living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(11), 7426–7431 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siggia, E. D.

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorre, B.

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stilgoe, A. B.

T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Svedlund, F. L.

Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swiergiel, J. J.

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanabe, K.

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, J. A.

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thoumine, O.

O. Thoumine, P. Kocian, A. Kottelat, and J. J. Meister, “Short-term binding of fibroblasts to fibronectin: optical tweezers experiments and probabilistic analysis,” Eur. Biophys. J. 29(6), 398–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timp, G.

U. Mirsaidov, W. Timp, K. Timp, M. Mir, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 1), 021910 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timp, K.

U. Mirsaidov, W. Timp, K. Timp, M. Mir, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 1), 021910 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timp, W.

U. Mirsaidov, W. Timp, K. Timp, M. Mir, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 1), 021910 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomoda, K.

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzur, G.

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waknitz, M. A.

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walz, G.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warmflash, A.

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, C.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisel, J. W.

R. I. Litvinov, H. Shuman, J. S. Bennett, and J. W. Weisel, “Binding strength and activation state of single fibrinogen-integrin pairs on living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(11), 7426–7431 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

P. Jing, J. Wu, G. W. Liu, E. G. Keeler, S. H. Pun, and L. Y. Lin, “Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19924 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. D.

P. F. Jing, J. D. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, “Patterned Optical Trapping with Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 398–402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

Xu, X.

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadav, V. G.

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, S.

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, H.

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

P. F. Jing, J. D. Wu, and L. Y. Lin, “Patterned Optical Trapping with Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 398–402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

M. Eastwood, D. A. McGrouther, and R. A. Brown, “A culture force monitor for measurement of contraction forces generated in human dermal fibroblast cultures: evidence for cell-matrix mechanical signalling,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1201(2), 186–192 (1994).
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Biophys. J. (4)

A. Kloboucek, A. Behrisch, J. Faix, and E. Sackmann, “Adhesion-induced receptor segregation and adhesion plaque formation: A model membrane study,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2311–2328 (1999).
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C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3314–3329 (2002).
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E. Evans, K. Ritchie, and R. Merkel, “Sensitive force technique to probe molecular adhesion and structural linkages at biological interfaces,” Biophys. J. 68(6), 2580–2587 (1995).
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K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki, M. Narita, T. Ichisaka, K. Tomoda, and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell 131(5), 861–872 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Biophys. J. (1)

O. Thoumine, P. Kocian, A. Kottelat, and J. J. Meister, “Short-term binding of fibroblasts to fibronectin: optical tweezers experiments and probabilistic analysis,” Eur. Biophys. J. 29(6), 398–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1)

J. Reiser, W. Kriz, M. Kretzler, and P. Mundel, “The glomerular slit diaphragm is a modified adherens junction,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(1), 1–8 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1)

O. Thoumine, A. Ott, O. Cardoso, and J. J. Meister, “Microplates: a new tool for manipulation and mechanical perturbation of individual cells,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 39(1-2), 47–62 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

B. Hartleben, H. Schweizer, P. Lübben, M. P. Bartram, C. C. Möller, R. Herr, C. Wei, E. Neumann-Haefelin, B. Schermer, H. Zentgraf, D. Kerjaschki, J. Reiser, G. Walz, T. Benzing, and T. B. Huber, “Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(34), 23033–23038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomol. Screen. (1)

J. M. Atienza, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. Abassi, “Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and spreading on microelectronic sensor arrays,” J. Biomol. Screen. 10(8), 795–805 (2005).
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J. Cell Biol. (1)

M. Prass, K. Jacobson, A. Mogilner, and M. Radmacher, “Direct measurement of the lamellipodial protrusive force in a migrating cell,” J. Cell Biol. 174(6), 767–772 (2006).
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J. Cell Sci. (1)

J. Helenius, C. P. Heisenberg, H. E. Gaub, and D. J. Muller, “Single-cell force spectroscopy,” J. Cell Sci. 121(11), 1785–1791 (2008).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, A. B. Stilgoe, G. Knoner, A. M. Branczyk, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical tweezers computational toolbox,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(8), S196–S203 (2007).
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Lab. Invest. (1)

W. Reeves, J. P. Caulfield, and M. G. Farquhar, “Differentiation of epithelial foot processes and filtration slits: sequential appearance of occluding junctions, epithelial polyanion, and slit membranes in developing glomeruli,” Lab. Invest. 39(2), 90–100 (1978).
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Langmuir (1)

T. Y. Chang, V. G. Yadav, S. De Leo, A. Mohedas, B. Rajalingam, C. L. Chen, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and A. Khademhosseini, “Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces,” Langmuir 23(23), 11718–11725 (2007).
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Nat. Cell Biol. (1)

N. Q. Balaban, U. S. Schwarz, D. Riveline, P. Goichberg, G. Tzur, I. Sabanay, D. Mahalu, S. Safran, A. Bershadsky, L. Addadi, and B. Geiger, “Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates,” Nat. Cell Biol. 3(5), 466–472 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Ma, J. Wang, P. Loskill, N. Huebsch, S. Koo, F. L. Svedlund, N. C. Marks, E. W. Hua, C. P. Grigoropoulos, B. R. Conklin, and K. E. Healy, “Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

A. Warmflash, B. Sorre, F. Etoc, E. D. Siggia, and A. H. Brivanlou, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nat. Methods 11(8), 847–854 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
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Nature (3)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421(6921), 423–427 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
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D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

U. Mirsaidov, W. Timp, K. Timp, M. Mir, P. Matsudaira, and G. Timp, “Optimal optical trap for bacterial viability,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 1), 021910 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. I. Litvinov, H. Shuman, J. S. Bennett, and J. W. Weisel, “Binding strength and activation state of single fibrinogen-integrin pairs on living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(11), 7426–7431 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Jing, J. Wu, G. W. Liu, E. G. Keeler, S. H. Pun, and L. Y. Lin, “Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19924 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro, M. A. Waknitz, J. J. Swiergiel, V. S. Marshall, and J. M. Jones, “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science 282(5391), 1145–1147 (1998).
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Ultramicroscopy (1)

P. H. Puech, K. Poole, D. Knebel, and D. J. Muller, “A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 106(8-9), 637–644 (2006).
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Y. K. Kim, I. Refaeli, C. R. Brooks, P. Jing, R. E. Gulieva, M. R. Hughes, N. M. Cruz, Y. Liu, A. J. Churchill, Y. Wang, H. Fu, J. W. Pippin, L. Y. Lin, S. J. Shankland, A. W. Vogl, K. M. McNagny, and B. S. Freedman, Gene-Edited Human Kidney Organoids Reveal Mechanisms of Disease in Podocyte Development. Stem Cells, 2017. 35(12): p. 2366–2378.

P. Jing, K. Winston, Y. C. Chen, B. Freedman, and L. Y. Lin, Patterning and Colonizing Stem Cells with Optical Trapping, in Optical Trapping Applications. 2017, Optical Society of America: San Diego, USA. p. OtM4E. 2.

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       A single hPSC is moved by a loosely focused laser beam on a hydrophobic parylene film-coated PhC substrate.
» Visualization 2       One trapped hPSC pushes the other through the repelling force. A gap between the cells can be clearly seen.
» Visualization 3       A pair of stem cells are held together when the laser is on, and they repel each other when the laser is turned off.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Manipulation of hPSCs with a parylene-C assisted photonic-crystal optical tweezers system. (a) Schematic drawing of the photonic-crystal optical tweezers setup: a single-mode Nd:YVO4 laser is incident on the photonic crystal perpendicularly, which improves trapping efficiency by diffraction. The parylene-C film on the substrate provides a biocompatible surface for cell culture, and the culture temperature is controlled by a thermoelectric heater seated beneath the substrate. (b) Cell movement on a hydrophobic parylene-C film using a low-intensity laser beam focused by a 20x objective lens (N.A. = 0.22). Four cells are dragged into a rectangular pattern by optical tweezers, and the movement of one cell is indicated by the relative distances between the reference cells (white arrows) and the trapped cell (red arrow), which was positioned in the corner of the rectangular pattern. (c) Relationship between plasma-treatment power and hydrophilicity of the parylene-C surface. The hydrophilicity is described by the contact angle of a deionized water droplet on the surface. The inset pictures show the droplets on parylene-C surfaces treated with different plasma powers for 30 seconds: 15 W, 20 W, 25 W, and 40 W, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical tweezers reveal anti-adhesive forces between hPSCs. (a) Schematic diagram of trapping force calibration: a laser beam of known intensity is placed next to a cell, which moves the cell to the center of the beam via optical gradient forces. (b) Images of an experiment showing trapping of a cell by the laser: the dark dot approximately centered in each image specifies the center of the laser beam, and cell position is tracked by a yellow box generated by the mean-shift algorithm. (c) Measured (blue) and theoretical (red) trapping forces fitted with a linear regression whose determination coefficient (R-squared value) is 0.85. The measured force is computed by Faxen’s law with real-time velocity and acceleration data extracted from cell position plotted in the inset.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic drawing of the repulsive force measurement where two cells were positioned close to each other, and the laser beam was placed in the middle of the two cells. (b) The gap between cells with or without laser-induced forces. A pair of CAM-stained cells remain separated by a gap when the laser is turned on at the center position between them. When the laser is off, the cells repel each other becoming further separated. (c) Average gap change over time with a laser intensity of 0.67  mW / μm 2 . The time indicates the start of the experiments each day, and the gaps were measured over time. The red line describes a moving average filter, and the black dotted line is an extension representing the average value of the gap before decreasing. The average gap stays the same during the first 40 minutes and decreases afterwards, which indicates the valid period of measurement. (d) Repulsive force characterizations. The repulsive force decreases with a wider gap, given a set laser intensity. (e) Histograms of gaps and corresponding repulsive forces. The gaps were measured for multiple pairs of cells in a single experiment on a single day. The histograms show the resulting distribution of intercellular forces among these pairs of cells.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cellular spatial patterning at the single-cell level. (a) Schematic drawing of the patterning process. Randomly plated cells were first patterned by photonic-crystal optical tweezers before adding Geltrex to the solution. Cells began to attach to the parylene-C film after heating up to 37 °C. (b) Cell average density on glass slides coated with various oxygen-plasma treated parylene-C films. (c) Cellular patterning using photonic-crystal optical tweezers. The photonic crystal substrate was coated with a parylene-C film that underwent 20 W of plasma treatment. An “R” pattern (left) and “ π ” pattern (right) were constructed on the photonic-crystal platforms. (d) A key shaped pattern of stem cells on a photonic crystal coated with parylene-C after a 20 W plasma treatment. The left bottom corner shows a schematic picture of the key pattern. Cells began to spread out and attach to the surface after 35 minutes of heating at 37 °C. The cell that is the tooth of the key does not attach until migrating to the key’s bottom.

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