Abstract

Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Tseng, P. Bargo, A. Durkin, and N. Kollias, “Chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of human skin in-vivo,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14599–14617 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. A. Ramsey, S. C. Sharma, and K. Vaghela, “Holographically formed Bragg reflection gratings recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells using a He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051121 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

V. A. Loiko and V. V. Berdnik, “Multiple scattering in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Liq. Cryst. 29(7), 921–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alerstam, E.

Anderson, E.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Bargo, P.

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bassi, A.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

Berdnik, V. V.

V. A. Loiko and V. V. Berdnik, “Multiple scattering in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Liq. Cryst. 29(7), 921–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Braichotte, D.

Cerussi, A. E.

Chen, W. R.

Chen, Y. W.

Comelli, D.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coquoz, O.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dam, J. S.

Doornbos, R. M.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

Fantini, S.

Farina, A.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J. B.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. B. Fishkin, P. T. C. So, A. E. Cerussi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, “Frequency-Domain Method for Measuring Spectral Properties in Multiple-Scattering Media: Methemoglobin Absorption Spectrum in a Tissuelike Phantom,” Appl. Opt. 34(7), 1143–1155 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gratton, E.

Han, T. D.

Hsu, C. K.

Huang, L. L.

Hughes, M.

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kollias, N.

Lang, R.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

Liao, Y. K.

Lilge, L.

Lo, W. C.

Loiko, V. A.

V. A. Loiko and V. V. Berdnik, “Multiple scattering in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Liq. Cryst. 29(7), 921–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Monnier, P.

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, T. H.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pifferi, A.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilon, L.

Prahl, S. A.

Ramsey, R. A.

R. A. Ramsey, S. C. Sharma, and K. Vaghela, “Holographically formed Bragg reflection gratings recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells using a He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Robert, D.

Rose, J.

Savary, J. F.

Sharma, S. C.

R. A. Ramsey, S. C. Sharma, and K. Vaghela, “Holographically formed Bragg reflection gratings recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells using a He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051121 (2006).
[Crossref]

So, P. T. C.

Sterenborg, H. J.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S. H.

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tzeng, S. Y.

Vaghela, K.

R. A. Ramsey, S. C. Sharma, and K. Vaghela, “Holographically formed Bragg reflection gratings recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells using a He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051121 (2006).
[Crossref]

van den Bergh, H.

van Gemert, M. J.

Wagnières, G.

Welch, A. J.

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Yudovsky, D.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. A. Ramsey, S. C. Sharma, and K. Vaghela, “Holographically formed Bragg reflection gratings recorded in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal cells using a He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

P. Taroni, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2543–2555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

V. A. Loiko and V. V. Berdnik, “Multiple scattering in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Liq. Cryst. 29(7), 921–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A Diffusion Theory Model of Spatially Resolved, Steady-State Diffuse Reflectance for the Noninvasive Determination of Tissue Optical Properties Invivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic configuration of the light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system. Red and black lines represent optical fibers and electric wires, respectively. (b) Measurement setup showing the source fiber, detector fiber, and liquid crystal cell. Inset depicts the side view of the configuration. S: source fiber, D: detector fiber, LC: liquid crystal.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption and (b) reduced scattering spectra of the LC cell at various bias voltages.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients at 700 nm of the LC cell at various bias voltages.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Percent differences between the diffuse reflectances of 500 randomly selected sample optical properties generated from the ANNs and the GPU-based Monte Carlo model when LC cell bias voltage was set to (a) 0V and (b) 225V. It can be seen that the accuracy of the ANNs was decent with less than 0.35% deviation from the Monte Carlo model.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured diffuse reflectance intensity (symbols) and the corresponding inverse fitting curves (dashed lines) of phantoms SP1 (filled circles), SP2 (empty squares), and SP3 (filled triangles).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Monte Carlo simulated maximum interrogation depth in μm for various sample optical properties of our LDM DRS system at the LC cell bias voltages of (a) 0V and (b) 225V.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Percent difference between the maximum interrogation depths calculated at the LC cell bias voltages of 0V and 225V of our LDM DRS system.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Absorption and (b) reduced scattering coefficients of the silicone phantom SP3 recovered using LDM DRS in the wavelength range from 600 to 1000 nm (filled circles). Benchmark values are shown as solid lines.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The optical properties of four homemade silicone phantoms at 700 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Recovered optical properties of the silicone phantoms at 700 nm and the percent deviations from the benchmark values listed in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Percent errors of optical property recovery of the 3 silicone phantoms when employing various voltage combinations containing different voltage number. Note that all voltage combinations included the highest (225V) and the lowest (0V) voltages.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Percent errors of optical property recovery of the 3 silicone phantoms when employing various voltage combinations containing different voltage number. Note that the starting and ending voltages are different from those used in Table 3.

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