Abstract

We experimentally analyze the signal-to-noise ratio of continuous wave (CW) near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance systems based on light emitting diodes and silicon photomultipliers for high performance low cost NIRS biomedical systems. We show that under suitable experimental conditions such systems exhibit a high SNR, which allows an SDS of 7 cm, to our knowledge the largest ever demonstrated in a CW-NIRs system.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, “NIRS in clinical neurology - a ‘promising’ tool?” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 535–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1 - Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11495–11507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Renker and E. Lorenz, “Advances in solid state photon detectors,” J. Inst. 4, P04004 (2009).

J. M. Murkin and M. Arango, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as an index of brain and tissue oxygenation,” Br. J. Anaesth. 103(Suppl 1), i3–i13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, “Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463–487 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52(7), 679–693 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. Rolfe, “In Vivo Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2(1), 715–754 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain,” Appl. Opt. 38(22), 4939–4950 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, “Non-Invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20(10), 435–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achtnich, T.

Adamo, G.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Agrò, D.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Arango, M.

J. M. Murkin and M. Arango, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as an index of brain and tissue oxygenation,” Br. J. Anaesth. 103(Suppl 1), i3–i13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, N. J.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Belluso, M.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bevilacqua, F.

Billotta, S.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boas, D. A.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52(7), 679–693 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonanno, G.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, J. P.

Braun, F.

Busacca, A. C.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Buzhan, P.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Canicattì, R.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Carbone, B.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chance, B.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, “Non-Invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20(10), 435–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

Condorelli, G.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corso, D.

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cosentino, L.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
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Cowans, F. M.

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
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Cubeddu, R.

Curcio, L.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
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Demarteau, M.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
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Depeursinge, C.

Di Mauro, S.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
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Dolgoshein, B.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, P. D.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
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Fallica, G.

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fallica, P. G.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, “Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463–487 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filatov, L.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Finocchiaro, P.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fortin, M.

Galioto, N.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Gassert, R.

Germon, T. J.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
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Giaconia, C.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstone, J. C.

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gross, J. D.

Hamid, S.

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, D. N. F.

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilyin, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
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L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
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L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
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Jedidi, R.

Kantserov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Kaplin, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Karakash, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Kayumov, F.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Kleiser, S.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klemin, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Lambercy, O.

Libertino, S.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lombardo, S.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
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Lorenz, E.

D. Renker and E. Lorenz, “Advances in solid state photon detectors,” J. Inst. 4, P04004 (2009).

Los, S.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

Manara, A. R.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Martelli, F.

Mata Pavia, J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzillo, M.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mermut, O.

Metz, A. J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michalos, A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morsellino, G.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Mottola, L.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, “Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463–487 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murkin, J. M.

J. M. Murkin and M. Arango, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as an index of brain and tissue oxygenation,” Br. J. Anaesth. 103(Suppl 1), i3–i13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. J.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noiseux, I.

Obrig, H.

H. Obrig, “NIRS in clinical neurology - a ‘promising’ tool?” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 535–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owen-Reece, H.

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagano, R.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pappalardo, A.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Parisi, A.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Paunescu, L. A.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piana, A.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

Piazza, A.

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pifferi, A.

Piguet, D.

Pinto, M.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Pleshko, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Popova, E.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, “Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463–487 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramberg, E.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

Renker, D.

D. Renker and E. Lorenz, “Advances in solid state photon detectors,” J. Inst. 4, P04004 (2009).

Renna, L.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Reynolds, E. O. R.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolfe, P.

P. Rolfe, “In Vivo Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2(1), 715–754 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronzhin, A.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanfilippo, D.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanfilippo, D. N.

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scholkmann, F.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Smith, M.

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stivala, S.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52(7), 679–693 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton, J. P.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52(7), 679–693 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Tomasino, A.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Toronov, V.

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valvo, G.

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

Veilleux, I.

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, “Non-Invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20(10), 435–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, Yu.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

Wall, P.

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wertheim, D. A.

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zimmermann, F. Braun, T. Achtnich, O. Lambercy, R. Gassert, and M. Wolf, “Silicon photomultipliers for improved detection of low light levels in miniature near-infrared spectroscopy instruments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 659–666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, R.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zimmermann, F. Braun, T. Achtnich, O. Lambercy, R. Gassert, and M. Wolf, “Silicon photomultipliers for improved detection of low light levels in miniature near-infrared spectroscopy instruments,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 659–666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

D. N. F. Harris, F. M. Cowans, D. A. Wertheim, and S. Hamid, “NIRS in Adults - Effects of Increasing Optode Separation,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 837–840 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

P. Rolfe, “In Vivo Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2(1), 715–754 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933(1), 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biol. Psychiatry (1)

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52(7), 679–693 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Anaesth. (3)

J. M. Murkin and M. Arango, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as an index of brain and tissue oxygenation,” Br. J. Anaesth. 103(Suppl 1), i3–i13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Owen-Reece, M. Smith, C. E. Elwell, and J. C. Goldstone, “Near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(3), 418–426 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Germon, P. D. Evans, N. J. Barnett, P. Wall, A. R. Manara, and R. J. Nelson, “Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased,” Br. J. Anaesth. 82(6), 831–837 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can. J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, “Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29(4), 463–487 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “CONV - Convolution for responses to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54(3), 141–150 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ICFA Instr. Bull. (1)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, A. Pleshko, E. Popova, S. Smirnov, Yu. Volkov, L. Filatov, S. Klemin, and F. Kayumov, “An advanced study of silicon photomultiplier,” ICFA Instr. Bull. 23, 28–41 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Billotta, G. Bonanno, B. Carbone, G. Condorelli, S. Di Mauro, G. Fallica, M. Mazzillo, A. Piazza, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Valvo, “Characterization of a novel 100-channel silicon photomultiplier—Part II: charge and time,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(10), 2765–2773 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Pagano, D. Corso, S. Lombardo, G. Valvo, D. N. Sanfilippo, G. Fallica, and S. Libertino, “Dark current in silicon photomultiplier pixels: data and model,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(9), 2410–2416 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, “Timing performance of large area silicon photomultiplier fabricated at STMicroelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(4), 2273–2279 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Inst. (1)

D. Renker and E. Lorenz, “Advances in solid state photon detectors,” J. Inst. 4, P04004 (2009).

Neuroimage (4)

H. Obrig, “NIRS in clinical neurology - a ‘promising’ tool?” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 535–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari and V. Quaresima, “A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application,” Neuroimage 63(2), 921–935 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J. H. Choi, and E. Gratton, “Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Neuroimage 16(3), 704–712 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. (1)

D. T. Delpy and M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352(1354), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, M. Mazzillo, A. Piana, B. Carbone, L. Renna, P. G. Fallica, D. Agrò, G. Morsellino, M. Pinto, R. Canicattì, N. Galioto, A. Tomasino, G. Adamo, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, R. Pagano, S. Libertino, and S. Lombardo, “Design and development of a fNIRS system prototype based on SiPM detectors,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 899016 (2014).

Trends Neurosci. (1)

A. Villringer and B. Chance, “Non-Invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20(10), 435–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Oregon Medical Laser Center, Monte Carlo Simulations, http://omlc.org/software/mc/ .

M. Mazzillo, F. Nagy, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, and G. Fallica, “Silicon Photomultiplier Technology for Low-Light Intensity Detection” Proc. IEEE Sensors, (2013).

Fantôme Optique Biomimic, http://www.ino.ca/fr/produits/fant ôme-optique-biomimic/.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Image of the Phantom.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SNR experimental setup: (a) SNR vs. SDS setup at constant repetition rate (f0 = 100Hz); (b) SNR vs. repetition rate (f0) setup at constant SDS (6 cm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparisons of the responsivity vs. wavelength at −27°C of some silicon detectors (blue line STMicroelrctronics SiPM, green line Hamamtsu S3884 APD, red line Hamamatsu S1337–1010BQ Photodiode).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photocurrent vs Power Density of the STMicroelectronics SiPM biased at −30V and at −27°C in response to a laser source with 660 nm wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparisons between the expected optical signal and the measured average signal ms for (a) the 1st and (b) the 2nd phantom configuration as shown in the inset.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Raw signal s measured at a SDS of 6 cm in response to a source 735nm LED pumped at 20 mA for (a) the 1st and (b) the 2nd phantom configuration.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 SNR vs. SDS for a repetition rate of 100 Hz per channel measured for (a) the 1st and (b) the 2nd phantom configuration as shown in the inset.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SNR vs. repetition rate (f0), at different LED pump currents, measured for the 2nd phantom configuration, as shown in the inset, at a SDS of 6 cm and for the 735 nm LED.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SiPM parameters at −27°C

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical phantom parameters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S th1 S th0 =exp( ΔμSDSDPF )
SNR MIN =20 log 10 ( S th1 σ max )
SNR MIN =20 log 10 { 3 [ exp( ΔμSDSDPF )1 ] 1 }.
I P =qG f ph PDE

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