Abstract

We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Pilát, J. Ježek, M. Šerý, M. Trtílek, L. Nedbal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical trapping of microalgae at 735-1064 nm: Photodamage assessment,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 121, 27–31 (2013).

A. van Belkum and W. M. Dunne., “Next-generation antimicrobial susceptibility testing,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2018–2024 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

A. Samadi and S. N. S. Reihani, “Role of condenser iris in optical tweezer detection system,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4056–4058 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Altindal, S. Chattopadhyay, and X. L. Wu, “Bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap,” PLoS ONE 6(4), e18231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. McGloin and J. P. Reid, “Forty years of optical manipulation,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 20–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ling, F. Zhou, L. Huang, and Z.-Y. Li, “Optical forces on arbitrary shaped particles in optical tweezers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073110 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Samadi and N. S. Reihani, “Optimal beam diameter for optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1494–1496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. H. Jorgensen and M. J. Ferraro, “Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 49(11), 1749–1755 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, “Single-cell microbiology: tools, technologies, and applications,” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68(3), 538–559 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Keer and L. Birch, “Molecular methods for the assessment of bacterial viability,” J. Microbiol. Methods 53(2), 175–183 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-Induced Heating in Optical Traps,” Biophys. J. 84(2), 1308–1316 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

R. M. Berry and H. C. Berg, “Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical tweezers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(26), 14433–14437 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

A. Koshiro and S. Oie, “Bactericidal activity of ethanol against glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli,” Microbios 40(159), 33–40 (1984).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

H. E. Morton, “The relationship of concentration and germicidal efficiency of ethyl alcohol,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 53(1), 191–196 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguinaga, M. P.

Altindal, T.

T. Altindal, S. Chattopadhyay, and X. L. Wu, “Bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap,” PLoS ONE 6(4), e18231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagaria, J.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, R.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bareil, P. B.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, H. C.

R. M. Berry and H. C. Berg, “Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical tweezers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(26), 14433–14437 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, R. M.

R. M. Berry and H. C. Berg, “Absence of a barrier to backwards rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor demonstrated with optical tweezers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(26), 14433–14437 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birch, L.

J. T. Keer and L. Birch, “Molecular methods for the assessment of bacterial viability,” J. Microbiol. Methods 53(2), 175–183 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338(6215), 514–518 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brehm-Stecher, B. F.

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, “Single-cell microbiology: tools, technologies, and applications,” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68(3), 538–559 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butt, F.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campoy, S.

I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carberry, D. M.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chadd, E. H.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, M. S.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

T. Altindal, S. Chattopadhyay, and X. L. Wu, “Bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap,” PLoS ONE 6(4), e18231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, U.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chemla, Y. R.

T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. Q.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiou, A.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Chubiz, L. M.

T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

Doumith, M.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunne, W. M.

A. van Belkum and W. M. Dunne., “Next-generation antimicrobial susceptibility testing,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2018–2024 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enger, J.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erenso, D.

Ericsson, M.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farone, A.

Farone, M.

Ferraro, M. J.

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K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-Induced Heating in Optical Traps,” Biophys. J. 84(2), 1308–1316 (2003).
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F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, “Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 7–9 (1998).
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T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
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D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
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M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanna, S.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
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Hanstorp, D.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
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Ho, Y.-L. D.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
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L. Ling, F. Zhou, L. Huang, and Z.-Y. Li, “Optical forces on arbitrary shaped particles in optical tweezers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073110 (2010).
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Irfan, S.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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Z. Pilát, J. Ježek, M. Šerý, M. Trtílek, L. Nedbal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical trapping of microalgae at 735-1064 nm: Photodamage assessment,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 121, 27–31 (2013).

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J. H. Jorgensen and M. J. Ferraro, “Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices,” Clin. Infect. Dis. 49(11), 1749–1755 (2009).
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J. T. Keer and L. Birch, “Molecular methods for the assessment of bacterial viability,” J. Microbiol. Methods 53(2), 175–183 (2003).
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A. Koshiro and S. Oie, “Bactericidal activity of ethanol against glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli,” Microbios 40(159), 33–40 (1984).
[PubMed]

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K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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Kumarasamy, K. K.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-Y.

L. Ling, F. Zhou, L. Huang, and Z.-Y. Li, “Optical forces on arbitrary shaped particles in optical tweezers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, G. B.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, L.

L. Ling, F. Zhou, L. Huang, and Z.-Y. Li, “Optical forces on arbitrary shaped particles in optical tweezers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liou, G. F.

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Livermore, D. M.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
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Maharjan, S.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
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D. McGloin and J. P. Reid, “Forty years of optical manipulation,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 20–26 (2010).
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T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miles, M. J.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

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T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
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H. E. Morton, “The relationship of concentration and germicidal efficiency of ethyl alcohol,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 53(1), 191–196 (1950).
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Mushtaq, S.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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Z. Pilát, J. Ježek, M. Šerý, M. Trtílek, L. Nedbal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical trapping of microalgae at 735-1064 nm: Photodamage assessment,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 121, 27–31 (2013).

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K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, E. H. Chadd, G. F. Liou, K. Bergman, and S. M. Block, “Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 77(5), 2856–2863 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noorie, T.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyström, T.

M. Ericsson, D. Hanstorp, P. Hagberg, J. Enger, and T. Nyström, “Sorting out bacterial viability with optical tweezers,” J. Bacteriol. 182(19), 5551–5555 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oie, S.

A. Koshiro and S. Oie, “Bactericidal activity of ethanol against glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli,” Microbios 40(159), 33–40 (1984).
[PubMed]

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D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paterson, D. L.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, A.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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Pellizzaro, A.

Perry, C.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterman, E. J. G.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-Induced Heating in Optical Traps,” Biophys. J. 84(2), 1308–1316 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, D.

I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. B.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pike, R.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilát, Z.

Z. Pilát, J. Ježek, M. Šerý, M. Trtílek, L. Nedbal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical trapping of microalgae at 735-1064 nm: Photodamage assessment,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 121, 27–31 (2013).

Rao, B.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, C. V.

T. L. Min, P. J. Mears, L. M. Chubiz, C. V. Rao, I. Golding, and Y. R. Chemla, “High-resolution, long-term characterization of bacterial motility using optical tweezers,” Nat. Methods 6(11), 831–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, U.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, J. P.

D. McGloin and J. P. Reid, “Forty years of optical manipulation,” Opt. Photonics News 21(3), 20–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reihani, N. S.

Reihani, S. N. S.

Samadi, A.

Sarma, J. B.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-Induced Heating in Optical Traps,” Biophys. J. 84(2), 1308–1316 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, “Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 7–9 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, D.

Šerý, M.

Z. Pilát, J. Ježek, M. Šerý, M. Trtílek, L. Nedbal, and P. Zemánek, “Optical trapping of microalgae at 735-1064 nm: Photodamage assessment,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 121, 27–31 (2013).

Sharma, M.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, Y.

G. B. Liao, Y. Q. Chen, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, A. Chiou, and M. S. Chang, “Radiation pressure on a biconcave human Red Blood Cell and the resulting deformation in a pair of parallel optical traps,” J. Biophotonics 7(10), 782–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, E.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, S. H.

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles, and S. H. Simpson, “Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 400–405 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solomon, R.

Thirunarayan, M. A.

K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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I. A. Martínez, S. Campoy, M. Tort, M. Llagostera, and D. Petrov, “A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern,” PLoS ONE 8(4), e61630 (2013).
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K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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K. K. Kumarasamy, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh, J. Bagaria, F. Butt, R. Balakrishnan, U. Chaudhary, M. Doumith, C. G. Giske, S. Irfan, P. Krishnan, A. V. Kumar, S. Maharjan, S. Mushtaq, T. Noorie, D. L. Paterson, A. Pearson, C. Perry, R. Pike, B. Rao, U. Ray, J. B. Sarma, M. Sharma, E. Sheridan, M. A. Thirunarayan, J. Turton, S. Upadhyay, M. Warner, W. Welfare, D. M. Livermore, and N. Woodford, “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597–602 (2010).
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Welker, G.

Woodford, N.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup. An expanded 1064-nm laser beam is coupled into the microscope from the side port with a Dichroic Mirror (DM1). The expanded beam is tightly focused into the sample dish mounted on piezoelectric transducer (PZT).The forward scattered light from the trapped object is first collected by a condenser lens and then sent to a Position-Sensitive Detector (PSD) by reflection from another Dichroic Mirror (DM2). Low-noise preamplifiers and A/D card are used for signal conditioning and data acquisition. A microsyringe pump is used for delivering alcohol into the dish. The insert on the left illustrates a zoomed view of a single bacterium trapped by the optical tweezers. Insets on the right show typical dark-field images of an E. coli bacterium trapped by an optical tweezers. (a) When the bacterium is trapped inside the sample chamber, i.e., in bulk, the bacterium aligns itself along the laser beam axis, such that only a transverse projection is seen; (b) when it is gently pushed against the chamber wall, the cell changes orientation, showing clearly the entire rod-shaped body.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Positional time series (trajectory) of a trapped bacterium in the lateral direction for 300 s (bottom trace, gray) after introducing 25% ethyl alcohol. Three different sections, at intervals of 0-30, 90-120 and 180-210 s, were expanded and represented in black, red and blue, respectively. (b) Calculated power spectrum and (c) Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) corresponding to the three sections in (a). (d) Normalized ACF (ξ) calculated for each 30s time series obtained at different times after adding the alcohol. The points are from calculation of measured data, while the red line is the sigmoidal dose-response-function fit.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized ACF (ξ) vs. time for different alcohol concentrations. The killing times for 25%, 22.5%, and 20% concentrations are determined to be 130 s, 230 s, and 550 s, respectively, and these are representative killing times of a single cell. For each concentration, measurements were done for at least 10 cells, yielding similar results with standard deviations. When no alcohol (0%) is added, the normalized ACF (ξ) does not change appreciably with time, indicating that the lethal effect is not due to photodamage.

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