Abstract

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a useful tool to identify and to quantitate species in mixtures of organic chemicals. However, carbon-13 satellites often interfere with the identification and integration of resonances from species at low concentrations (<2%) in such mixtures. Carbon-13 satellites arise from proton coupling to carbon-13 (spin 1/2, 1.1% isotope abundance). Each satellite is 0.55% of the area of the proton resonance for protons bound to carbon-12. The interferences become particularly troublesome when the principal component of the mixture has many or overlapping resonances.

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