Although significant progress has been made in recent years in the interpretation and prediction of matrix effects in x-ray fluorescent analysis, many absorption and enhancement effects have not been completely defined. This paper describes a number of matrix combinations that illustrate unusual effects. Copper, for example, which generally enhances iron fluorescent radiation will actually decrease it in a matrix which is significantly less absorbing than the copper. Chromium, which generally absorbs iron fluorescent radiation, will increase it in a matrix which is significantly more absorbing than the chromium. Under certain restricted conditions, both enhancement and absorption are shown to occur in the same matrix. The range and variety of effects are discussed and illustrated for 4th-period elements relative to the sample matrix in which they occur.

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