Abstract

The efficacy of catheter ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation is directly impacted by the quality of lesion formation. Two parameters that are critical for maximizing energy delivery are sustained catheter contact and orientation. Currently, these parameters must be inferred indirectly through tactile feedback or measurements of bioelectrical impedance and tip force. In this work, we propose a method for discerning contact and orientation based on direct endomyocardial imaging mediated by optical coherence tomography (OCT)-integrated ablation catheters. A two-stage classifier is developed to deduce contact parameters from M-mode images. Experimental validation within swine left-atrial specimens demonstrate accuracies of 99.96% and 92.88% for contact and orientation stages, respectively. These results highlight the potential of OCT M-mode imaging for guiding catheter placement during radiofrequency ablation interventions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Integrated RFA/PSOCT catheter for real-time guidance of cardiac radio-frequency ablation

Xiaowei Zhao, Xiaoyong Fu, Colin Blumenthal, Yves T. Wang, Michael W. Jenkins, Christopher Snyder, Mauricio Arruda, and Andrew M. Rollins
Biomed. Opt. Express 9(12) 6400-6411 (2018)

In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography

Christine P. Fleming, Kara J. Quan, Hui Wang, Guy Amit, and Andrew M. Rollins
Opt. Express 18(3) 3079-3092 (2010)

Novel catheter enabling simultaneous radiofrequency ablation and optical coherence reflectometry

D. Herranz, Juan Lloret, Santiago Jiménez-Valero, J. L. Rubio-Guivernau, and Eduardo Margallo-Balbás
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9) 3268-3275 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Herranz, J. Lloret, S. Jiménez-Valero, J. L. Rubio-Guivernau, and E. Margallo-Balbás, “Novel catheter enabling simultaneous radiofrequency ablation and optical coherence reflectometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 3268–3275 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Zhao, X. Fu, C. Blumenthal, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, C. Snyder, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “Integrated RFA/PSOCT catheter for real-time guidance of cardiac radio-frequency ablation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 6400–6411 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).
  14. F. Chollet, “keras,” 2015, https://github.com/fchollet/keras .
  15. M. Abadi, A. Agarwal, P. Barham, E. Brevdo, Z. Chen, C. Citro, G. S. Corrado, A. Davis, J. Dean, M. Devin, S. Ghemawat, I. Goodfellow, A. Harp, G. Irving, M. Isard, Y. Jia, R. Jozefowicz, L. Kaiser, M. Kudlur, J. Levenberg, D. Mané, R. Monga, S. Moore, D. Murray, C. Olah, M. Schuster, J. Shlens, B. Steiner, I. Sutskever, K. Talwar, P. Tucker, V. Vanhoucke, V. Vasudevan, F. Viégas, O. Vinyals, P. Warden, M. Wattenberg, M. Wicke, Y. Yu, and X. Zheng, “TensorFlow: large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous systems,” 2015, https://www.tensorflow.org/ .
  16. M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).
  19. K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).
  20. S. Ioffe and C. Szegedy, “Batch normalization: accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift,” in ICML (2015).
  21. M. D. Zeiler, “ADADELTA: an adaptive learning rate method,” CoRR abs/1212.5701 (2012).
  22. D. T. Hermann, “Frugally-deep,” 2018, https://github.com/Dobiasd/frugally-deep .
  23. J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, X. Fu, C. Blumenthal, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, C. Snyder, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “Integrated RFA/PSOCT catheter for real-time guidance of cardiac radio-frequency ablation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 6400–6411 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

2010 (2)

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aguinaga, L.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S. M.

D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akar, J. G.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amir, S. B.

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amit, G.

Arruda, M.

X. Zhao, X. Fu, C. Blumenthal, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, C. Snyder, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “Integrated RFA/PSOCT catheter for real-time guidance of cardiac radio-frequency ablation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 6400–6411 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

Badhwar, V.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bardou, D.

D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barrett, C. D.

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, C.

Brugada, J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Calkins, H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Camm, J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cappato, R.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-S.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-A.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chennapragada, S.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choy, Y. B.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chung, M. K.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cosedis Nielsen, J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Curtis, A. B.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

d’Avila, A.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Danik, S. B.

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Davies, D. W.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Day, J. D.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Devidutta, S.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Di Biase, L.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Duytschaever, M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Earley, M. J.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Edgerton, J. R.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ellenbogen, K. A.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ellinor, P. T.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ernst, S.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Farkas, L.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Farkas, L. G.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fenelon, G.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fishbein, M. C.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fleming, C.

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

Fleming, C. P.

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Fujii, K.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gan, Y.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gang, E. S.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaudio, C.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gerstenfeld, E. P.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez, P.

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Haines, D. E.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haissaguerre, M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, K.

K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).

Heist, E. K.

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Helm, R. H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hendon, C. P.

M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Herranz, D.

Hindricks, G.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hinton, G.

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Hylek, E.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Inque, K.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ioffe, S.

S. Ioffe and C. Szegedy, “Batch normalization: accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift,” in ICML (2015).

Iwakura, K.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Izquierdo, M.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jackman, W. M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jalife, J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, M. W.

Jiménez-Valero, S.

Johnson, D.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kalman, J. M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kaur, D.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kautzner, J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kikkawa, T.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kistler, P. M.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kottkamp, H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krizhevsky, A.

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Kuck, K. H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, K.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, R.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lewalter, T.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lindsay, B. D.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lloret, J.

Lustgarten, D. L.

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Macle, L.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mansour, M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marboe, C. C.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marchlinski, F. E.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Margallo-Balbás, E.

Marx, B.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Michaud, G. F.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, H.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Narasimhan, C.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Natale, A.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Natasja de Groot, N. M. S.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nattel, S.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, B. L.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nozato, Y.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oka, T.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Okumura, K.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Orihara, Y.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Packer, D.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pandian, J.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perna, F.

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pokushalov, E.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Quan, K. J.

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rajappan, K.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramires, J. A. F.

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reddy, V.

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).

Reynolds, M. R.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rollins, A.

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

Rollins, A. M.

Rosenthal, N.

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

Rubio-Guivernau, J. L.

Ruskin, J. N.

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saad, E. B.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sakata, Y.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Salakhutdinov, R.

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Sanders, P.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scanavacca, M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schilling, R.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schilling, R. J.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shachar, Y.

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singh-Moon, R. P.

M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
[Crossref]

Snyder, C.

Sosa, E.

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sotomi, Y.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sporton, S. C. E.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, N.

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Sun, J.

K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).

Sundar, G.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sutskever, I.

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Szegedy, C.

S. Ioffe and C. Szegedy, “Batch normalization: accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift,” in ICML (2015).

Tanaka, K.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, N.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, G. T.

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tondo, C.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Toyoshima, Y.

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-Z.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsao, H.-M.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsay, D.

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tungjitkusolmun, S.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Verma, A.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vorperian, V. R.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. T.

Webster, J. G.

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wilber, D. J.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yalagudri, S.

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamane, T.

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zaryab, M.

M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeiler, M. D.

M. D. Zeiler, “ADADELTA: an adaptive learning rate method,” CoRR abs/1212.5701 (2012).

Zhang, K.

D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).

Zhao, X.

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. (2)

E. S. Gang, B. L. Nguyen, Y. Shachar, L. G. Farkas, L. Farkas, B. Marx, D. Johnson, M. C. Fishbein, C. Gaudio, and S. J. Kim, “Dynamically shaped magnetic fields: initial animal validation of a new remote electrophysiology catheter guidance and control system,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 770–777 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Perna, E. K. Heist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

EP Europace (1)

H. Calkins, G. Hindricks, R. Cappato, Y.-H. Kim, E. B. Saad, L. Aguinaga, J. G. Akar, V. Badhwar, J. Brugada, J. Camm, P.-S. Chen, S.-A. Chen, M. K. Chung, J. Cosedis Nielsen, A. B. Curtis, D. W. Davies, J. D. Day, A. d’Avila, N. M. S. Natasja de Groot, L. Di Biase, M. Duytschaever, J. R. Edgerton, K. A. Ellenbogen, P. T. Ellinor, S. Ernst, G. Fenelon, E. P. Gerstenfeld, D. E. Haines, M. Haissaguerre, R. H. Helm, E. Hylek, W. M. Jackman, J. Jalife, J. M. Kalman, J. Kautzner, H. Kottkamp, K. H. Kuck, K. Kumagai, R. Lee, T. Lewalter, B. D. Lindsay, L. Macle, M. Mansour, F. E. Marchlinski, G. F. Michaud, H. Nakagawa, A. Natale, S. Nattel, K. Okumura, D. Packer, E. Pokushalov, M. R. Reynolds, P. Sanders, M. Scanavacca, R. Schilling, C. Tondo, H.-M. Tsao, A. Verma, D. J. Wilber, and T. Yamane, “2017 hrs/ehra/ecas/aphrs/solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation,” EP Europace 20, e1–e160 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

D. Bardou, K. Zhang, and S. M. Ahmad, “Classification of breast cancer based on histology images using convolutional neural networks,” IEEE Access 6, 24680–24693 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

H. Cao, S. Tungjitkusolmun, Y. B. Choy, J.-Z. Tsai, V. R. Vorperian, and J. G. Webster, “Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 247–253 (2002).
[Crossref]

Indian Heart J. (1)

J. Pandian, D. Kaur, S. Yalagudri, S. Devidutta, G. Sundar, S. Chennapragada, and C. Narasimhan, “Safety and efficacy of epicardial approach to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia- an institutional experience,” Indian Heart J. 69, 170–175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. (1)

C. Fleming, N. Rosenthal, A. Rollins, and M. Arruda, “First in vivo real-time imaging of endocardial RF ablation by optical coherence tomography,” Innov. Cardiac Rhythm Manage. 201, 199 (2011).

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

X. Yao, Y. Gan, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 61006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (1)

Y. Sotomi, T. Kikkawa, K. Inque, K. Tanaka, Y. Toyoshima, T. Oka, N. Tanaka, Y. Nozato, Y. Orihara, K. Iwakura, Y. Sakata, and K. Fujii, “Regional difference of optimal contact force to prevent acute pulmonary vein reconnection during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 25, 941–947 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mach. Learn. Res. (1)

N. Srivastava, G. Hinton, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. Salakhutdinov, “Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 1929–1958 (2014).

Opt. Express (1)

Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. (1)

A. D’Avila, P. Gutierrez, M. Scanavacca, V. Reddy, D. L. Lustgarten, E. Sosa, and J. A. F. Ramires, “Effects of radiofrequency pulses delivered in the vicinity of the coronary arteries: implications for nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysio. 25, 1488–1495 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. (1)

K. Rajappan, P. M. Kistler, M. J. Earley, G. T. Thomas, M. Izquierdo, S. C. E. Sporton, and R. J. Schilling, “Acute and chronic pulmonary vein reconnection after atrial fibrillation ablation: a prospective characterization of anatomical sites,” Pacing Clinical Electrophysiol. 31, 1598–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc.SPIE (1)

M. Zaryab, R. P. Singh-Moon, and C. P. Hendon, “Robust classification of contact orientation between tissue and an integrated spectroscopy and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Proc.SPIE 10042, 100420O (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun, “Deep residual learning for image recognition,” CoRR abs/1512.03385 (2015).

S. Ioffe and C. Szegedy, “Batch normalization: accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift,” in ICML (2015).

M. D. Zeiler, “ADADELTA: an adaptive learning rate method,” CoRR abs/1212.5701 (2012).

D. T. Hermann, “Frugally-deep,” 2018, https://github.com/Dobiasd/frugally-deep .

F. Chollet, “keras,” 2015, https://github.com/fchollet/keras .

M. Abadi, A. Agarwal, P. Barham, E. Brevdo, Z. Chen, C. Citro, G. S. Corrado, A. Davis, J. Dean, M. Devin, S. Ghemawat, I. Goodfellow, A. Harp, G. Irving, M. Isard, Y. Jia, R. Jozefowicz, L. Kaiser, M. Kudlur, J. Levenberg, D. Mané, R. Monga, S. Moore, D. Murray, C. Olah, M. Schuster, J. Shlens, B. Steiner, I. Sutskever, K. Talwar, P. Tucker, V. Vanhoucke, V. Vasudevan, F. Viégas, O. Vinyals, P. Warden, M. Wattenberg, M. Wicke, Y. Yu, and X. Zheng, “TensorFlow: large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous systems,” 2015, https://www.tensorflow.org/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the M-mode integrated radiofrequency ablation catheter. FC, fiber coupler; SMF, single-mode fiber; ODL, optical delay line; SLD, superluminescent diode; GL, grin lens; C, collimator; M, mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Implementation of algorithm for guiding lesion delivery. (a) Envisioned integration of the algorithm within the RF ablation work flow. (b) Data pipeline for the proposed two-stage classification of catheter placement. Input batches of A-lines are first used to determine established contact. Once contact has been confirmed, the algorithm determines whether the catheter is oriented at a large or small angle to the tissue surface.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Example OCT M-mode images of contact scenarios. (a) Representative non-contact image when the catheter is about 5 mm or more away from the sample surface. (b) Example image when the catheter is less than 1 mm away from the sample surface. Though not in contact, the endocardium is easily visible through the blood layer. (c) When the catheter is in contact with the left atrium under translational sample motion. Bar height and width correspond to 100 μm and 5 ms, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Ideal (a) and actual (b) sample catheter tissue orientations. Discrepancies induced by surface topology add uncertainty X in precise angle estimation. Image adapted from [16].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Representative images from the large (a) and small (b) angle categories of catheter orientation used in this study. Bar corresponds to 5 ms.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Approach for five-fold cross validation of the orientation sub-classification model. Tr, training; V, validation; Te, testing. H1–H7 correspond to the seven total hearts used during the process.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Contact classifier architecture. Original M-mode image was cropped and sampled before insertion into the contact classifier. The basic unit enclosed within the bracket was repeated three times with the same filter size, pooling size for the max pooling layer, and activation function. However, the filter dimensions for the convolutional layers were varied. The convolutional output was flattened and fed into a fully connected (FC) layer. The final output was activated using a sigmoid function to yield the final prediction.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Orientation classifier architecture.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Two types of identity blocks. The first type (a) was used when the input and output had the same dimensions. The identity block in (b) was used to match the case of incongruent dimensions. Figure adapted from [19].
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Real-time orientation prediction while contact force was varied. Small angles correspond to class 1 and large angle to class 0. Classification result gradually transitions from small to large angle as increased contact force is applied.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Number of Images Used for Sub-Classifier Development

Tables Icon

Table 2. Test Accuracies for Contact and Orientation Classification Stages, along with Corresponding Prediction Times