This study was carried out to evaluate a method used to measure three-dimensional (3D) cognitive fatigue based on the pupillary response. This technique was designed to overcome measurement burdens by using non-contact methods. The pupillary response is related to cognitive function by a neural pathway and may be an indicator of 3D cognitive fatigue. Twenty-six undergraduate students (including 14 women) watched both 2D and 3D versions of a video for 70 min. The participants experienced visual fatigue after viewing the 3D content. Measures such as subjective rating, response time, event-related potential latency, heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) alpha power, and task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) latency were significantly different. Multitrait-multimethod matrix analysis indicated that HEP and TEPR latency measures had stronger reliability and higher correlations with 3D cognitive fatigue than other measures. TEPR latency may be useful for quantitatively determining 3D visual fatigue, as it can be easily used to evaluate 3D visual fatigue using a non-contact method without measuring burden.
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