Titanium-diffused LiNbO3 phase modulators are indispensable elements for high-bit-rate PSK coherent systems which have an advantage in that they have higher receiver sensitivity.1 Efficient fiber-LiNbO3 waveguide coupling is required to avoid sacrificing this advantage. The titanium/magnesium double-diffusion method.2 which gives good mode match to the fiber, is an excellent method to reduce fiber-waveguide coupling loss. However, it is likely that the drive voltage becomes higher for active devices such as phase modulators, because waveguides are buried by using this method.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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