Recently it was shown that all the nonideal electrooptical response characteristics of Ti:LiNbO3 directional coupler switches can be explained by considering small random refractive-index fluctuations arising from Ti concentration variations In the waveguides.1 The most undesirable of the characteristics is optical crosstalk, the inability to extinguish completely the output light in one of the two waveguides. Conventional directional coupler switches using a single electrode have consistently exhibited extinction ratios no better than –30 dB.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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