Abstract

The efficient coupling of a laser or edge-emitting LED (EE-LED) to a single-mode fiber (SMF) generally requires use of a microlensed fiber end or the incorporation of discrete lenses. The optics literature is full of examples of how various lens configurations can be used for single-mode coupling.1 The most useful coupling scheme is the confocal lens arrangement.2

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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