The proton-exchange technique has recently been studied so that various devices can be made in LiNbO3. The proton-exchange technique using benzoic acid to fabricate slab waveguides was first reported by Jackel.1 The advantage of the process is that it forms waveguides with high-index change and high resistance to the optical damage.2 However, the problem of using benzoic acid is relatively high loss (2.4–4.8 dB/cm) for stripe waveguides.3

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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