It has been predicted that monolithic optoelectronic integrated light sources will play a major role in future high-speed optical communication systems.1 Recently, several integrated light sources were developed for the short-wavelength2,3 and long-wavelength regions.4 Problems to be solved with integrated light sources are: (1) how to use the vertical laser structure with the planar electronic IC structures, and (2) how to develop low-threshold high-slope efficiency lasers without utilizing the conventional cleaving technique for a cavity formation.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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