Optical waveguides have been shown to be a promising means for sending optical information in the plane defined by the waveguides.1 However, little work has been done in using waveguides to direct optical information into or out of the waveguide plane (i.e., the substrate). One approach relies on the total internal reflection of light. This is accomplished by forming a bevel at the end of the optical waveguide at an angle so that light traveling through the guide is totally reflected. These bevels are necessary for interfacing to surface emitting and sensing devices such as lasers and receivers. Microfabrication techniques such as focused ion beams and reactive ion etching have been used to demonstrate bevels in GaAs devices.2 However, these techniques are not suited for forming bevels in high density arrays of passive optical waveguides, because these microfabrication techniques are site specific and not amenable to a broad area or rapid processing.
© 1990 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article