Phase modulation interferometry (PMI) has found wide acceptance for distance measurements and profilometry1,2 and shows promise in the field of automated manufacturing and calibration of robot arms. To modulate the phase of the reference beam in a PMI system, piezoelectric transducers are commonly used.3 The low cutoff frequency and the limited excursion of the PZTs set a limit for PMI, in relation to both the range and achievable speed of the measure arm.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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