Photorefractive effects have been observed in a variety of crystals such as BGO, SBN, KNbO3, LiNbO3, and BaTiO3.1 BaTiO3 is the one on which a great deal of attention has been focused, because BaTiO3 crystal possesses high photorefractive sensitivity and diffraction efficiency. Unfortunately, however, if the crystal is accidentally cooled below room temperature, its single domain state will be destroyed. Other major disadvantages of BaTiO3 crystal are that 90° twin domains easily appear in it, and its growth is difficult. LiNbO3 crystal has no such disadvantages, but its photorefractive sensitivity and diffraction efficiency are very low. The quality of LiNbO3 can be improved by doping, such as doping Fe or Rh.1

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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