Abstract

Surface emitting semiconductor lasers (SELs) are compact, have a low threshold current (1.5 mA cw),1 and are important for optoelectronic integrated circuits, optical computing, and communications. The focus of SEL research has been on the fabrication of vertical cavity SELs with low threshold, and recent progress has been impressive. However, for many applications they not only have to work, they have to be fast.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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