Abstract

In coherent communication systems with frequency division multiplexing, many waves of different frequencies copropagate simultaneously through a single-mode fiber. As the intensity of the waves increases the index of refraction in the fiber changes nonlinearily according to the intensity (Kerr effect), resulting in deleterious interactions. For example, such nonlinearity may lead to cross-phase modulation between the propagating waves when they are modulated or otherwise fluctuate in intensity.1 It can also lead to the generation of new frequencies which may interfere with existing waves as a result of four-wave mixing.2-4

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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