Recently, frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) has rapidly developed as a powerful method of doing highly sensitive, real time spectroscopic measurements.1-6 Since frequency modulation of diode lasers can be achieved by direct injection current modulation, using a diode laser makes FMS markedly easier. The theories of single-tone FMS and two-tone FMS have been studied and discussed in detail in Refs. 1–3.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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